Black Box Explains...Using repeaters to extend your network..
A repeater is a signal regenerator. It amplifies and regenerates received data and relays data from one length of cable to another—this can be between two segments of the same cable type (such as UTP to UTP) or between two lengths of entirely different cable types (such as UTP to ThinNet). Because repeaters operate at the Data Link layer of the OSI model, having too many repeaters on a network introduces delays and causes problems with signal timing. Ethernet allows a maximum of two IRLs (InterRepeater Links) between any two devices and up to four per network. A hub also counts as a repeater. (If simple media conversion is your goal, use media converters instead. For details, contact Tech Suport.)
Repeaters boost distance by amplifying the signal.
A repeater actually regenerates and amplifies the signal to gain distance. The repeater not only changes the media type, it also gives the signal a boost to send it over a longer distance.
Repeaters boost distance through a change in media.
In addition to amplifying the signal, a repeater can also add distance to your network by enabling you to change to a media type such as fiber that supports longer distances.