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Black Box Explains...Why you should consider a UPS.

Downtime is unacceptable and often costly. But it’s impossible to get 99.9% uptime when you plug your hardware into an AC outlet.

Power problems are the most common cause of network... more/see it nowinterruptions. According to an IBM® study, the average system is hit by 120 power disturbances per month.

Have you ever had to reset the clock on your VCR or seen the lights dim for a moment when the refrigerator kicks on? These are common occurrences that are insignificant at home but can cause a shutdown in your network. Many power disturbances are so short they’re invisible to the human eye, but they can make a router lock up or a switch require rebooting. Power problems are actually more common than you may know. For instance:
• 34% of network downtime is because of bad power (IBM study).
• 99% of power problems are brownouts (low voltage) or blackouts (complete outages). Only a UPS protects against those.
• It takes 90.87 seconds for switches in non redundant networks to recover from power interruptions.
• 45% of all data loss is caused by power problems.

For a small fraction of the cost of your networking hardware, you can purchase a UPS that protects your network from blackouts, brownouts (low voltages), and surges—even lightning strikes!

To prevent power disasters before they happen, more than 70% of servers are protected with a UPS. Network managers know that having a server down brings many operations to a halt. Although the loss of a single hub or router may not bring the entire corporation to a standstill, it can result in zero productivity for entire workgroups or remote offices.

How can you tell if your system is suffering from power problems?

See if some of these symptoms are familiar: damaged hardware, numerous service calls, erratic operation, unexplained problems, unreliable data, system slowdown, damaged software, system lockups, and more.

If you’ve experienced some of these problems, you need a UPS. It will keep power flowing, giving you enough time to shut down safely during a power outage. It will also regulate your power, smoothing out dangerous overvoltages and undervoltages, spikes, surges, and impulses that often go unnoticed. These power anomalies can be caused internally by nearby machinery, fluorescent lights, and elevators, as well as externally from nearby transformer problems, lightning strikes, downed power lines, and more.

Data and equipment losses from power problems are preventable. Eliminate system downtime and increase profitability and productivity with a UPS.

When looking for a UPS, consider these steps:

1. List all the equipment you have that needs protection. Remember to include monitors, terminals, hard drives, external modems, and any other equipment in the critical path of potential power or surge sources.

2. Add up the total amperage ratings of your equipment. This information is probably imprinted on the back of each device.

3. Multiply this total amperage figure by the operating voltage (typically 120 VAC in the U.S.) to obtain your total volt/amp (VA) requirement with a safety margin.

4. Select a UPS with a VA capacity at least as high as the amount in Step 3. To accommodate for future expansion, it’s wise to order a device with an even larger VA rating.

5. If you have questions about which UPS is right for you, contact Tech Support. collapse


Black Box Explains... Speaker wire gauge.

Wire gauge (often shown as AWG, for American Wire Gauge) is a measure of the thickness of the wire. The more a wire is drawn or sized, the smaller its... more/see it nowdiameter will be. The lower the wire gauge, the thicker the wire.

For example, a 24 AWG wire is thinner than a 14 AWG wire. A lower AWG means longer transmission distance and better integrity. As a rule of thumb, power loss decreases as the wire size increases.

When it comes to choosing speaker cable, consider a few factors: distance, the type of system and amplifier you have, the frequencies of the signals being handled, and any specifications that the speaker manufacturer recommends.

For most home applications where you simply need to run cable from your stereo to speakers in the same room—or even behind the walls to other rooms—16 AWG cable is usually fine.

If you’re considering runs of more than 40 feet (12.1 m), consider using 14 AWG or even 12 AWG cable. They both offer better transmission and less resistance over longer distances. You should probably choose 12 AWG cable for high-end audio systems with higher power output or for low-frequency subwoofers. As a rule of thumb, power loss decreases as the wire size increases.

To terminate your cable, choose gold connectors. Because gold resists oxidation over time, gold connectors wear better and offer better peformance than other connectors do. collapse


Black Box Explains... Ear Capsule Positioning

Many headset ear capsules fit awkwardly in the ear and make telephone professionals uncomfortable. If you wear a headset all day, that can really affect productivity. When choosing a headset,... more/see it nowmake sure the ear capsule has a hinge on it. This design enables you to adjust the headset for all-day comfort and better productivity. collapse


Black Box Explains...Type 1 vs. Type 6 Cable

Type 1 Cable is made of solid wire, typically 22 AWG bare copper. It has braided shielding around each pair. It’s recommended for long runs in walls, conduits, etc.

Type 6... more/see it nowCable is typically made of 26 AWG stranded copper and has one shield around both pairs. It’s lighter and more flexible than Type 1 Cable and has a better “look.” It’s recommended for use in office environments. collapse


Black Box Explains...Using repeaters to extend your network.

A repeater is a signal regenerator. It amplifies and regenerates received data and relays data from one length of cable to another—this can be between two segments of the same... more/see it nowcable type (such as UTP to UTP) or between two lengths of entirely different cable types (such as UTP to ThinNet). Because repeaters operate at the Data Link layer of the OSI model, having too many repeaters on a network introduces delays and causes problems with signal timing. Ethernet allows a maximum of two IRLs (InterRepeater Links) between any two devices and up to four per network. A hub also counts as a repeater. (If simple media conversion is your goal, use media converters instead. For details, contact Tech Suport.)

Repeaters boost distance by amplifying the signal.
A repeater actually regenerates and amplifies the signal to gain distance. The repeater not only changes the media type, it also gives the signal a boost to send it over a longer distance.

Repeaters boost distance through a change in media.
In addition to amplifying the signal, a repeater can also add distance to your network by enabling you to change to a media type such as fiber that supports longer distances. collapse


Black Box Explains... SNMP.

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) management is the standard for LAN management, particularly in mission-critical applications. The standard is controlled by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It was designed... more/see it nowto manage network configuration, performance, faults, accounting, and security.

An SNMP agent must be present at the device level (a router or a hub, for example), either built into the unit or as a proxy agent, and is accessed through a remote terminal. SNMP does not follow a polling protocol. It waits to receive data from the remote device or sends data based on operator commands.

By using one common set of standards, SNMP enables network administrators to manage, monitor, and control their SNMP-compliant network equipment with one management system and from one management station. If a network device goes down, it|s possible to both pinpoint and troubleshoot the problem more efficiently. And a network administrator isn’t limited to equipment from just one vendor when using an SNMP program. collapse


Black Box Explains...Serial ATA technology.

Introduced in the mid 1980s, the Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) interconnect soon became the industry-standard parallel input/output bus interface for connecting internal storage devices. Ultra ATA, which builds on the... more/see it noworiginal parallel ATA interface, has become the most commonly used type of interconnect.

But in recent years, sharing digital video and audio files over high-speed networks and other data-intensive uses has placed greater demands on hard drives, optical drives, and media-storage peripherals. So, not surprisingly, Ultra ATA now faces competition from a new technology—Serial ATA.

As the name implies, this new interconnect uses a serial bus architecture instead of a parallel one. Serial ATA currently supports speeds up to 150 MBps. Further enhancements could to boost rates as high as 600 MBps.

Compared with Ultra ATA, Serial ATA offers distinct advantages, including a point-to-point topology that enables you to dedicate 150 MBps to each connected device. Each channel can work independently and, unlike the “master-slave” shared bus of Ultra ATA, there’s no drive contention or interface bandwidth sharing.

Compared with Ultra ATA’s parallel bus design, Serial ATA requires a single signal path for sending data bits and a second path for receiving acknowledgement data. Each path travels across a 2-wire differential pair, and the bus contains four signal lines per channel. Fewer interface signals means the interconnect cable requires less board space.

Serial ATA also uses thinner cables (no more than 0.25" wide) that are available in longer lengths (up to 1 meter) as well as an improved connector design to reduce crosstalk. It also offers hot-swappable capabilities.

Although Serial ATA can’t interface directly with earlier Ultra ATA devices, it complies fully with the ATA protocol, so software between the two interconnects is compatible. collapse


Black Box Explains...Cable termination.


Carefully remove the jacketing from the cable and expose one inch of the insulated wire conductors. Do not remove any insulation from the conductors. When the... more/see it nowRJ-45 connector is crimped, the contacts inside will pierce the conductor insulation.


Untwist the wires to within 1/8" of the jacket. Arrange the wires according to the cable spec (568B in this case). Flatten and align the wires. Make one straight cut across all the conductors, removing approximately 1/2" to ensure the ends are of equal length.


Slide the wires into a connector. The cable jacket should extend into the connector about 1/4" for strain relief. Orient the wires so connector Pin 1 aligns with cable Pin 1, etc. Hold the connector in front of you. With the locking tab down, Pin 1 is on the far left.


Insert the connector into a crimp tool. Make sure you’re using the proper die. Firmly squeeze the handles. They’ll lock in a ratcheting action. A final click indicates the connector is firmly latched.


Check your work using a continuity tester or cable certifier rated for the cable standard you’re installing. Your tester should be able to check for shorts, opens, or miswires.


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Black Box Explains... Coax cables for ServSwitch products.

What’s the difference between standard and coax cables for ServSwitch™ products? Performance! Coax cables are made with premium-gauge wire, so they can be made in longer lengths. That means you... more/see it nowcan move your workstation up to 100 feet (30.4 m) from your ServSwitch. Plus coax cables have even more shielding to maintain the signal quality and strength you need. If you require high-resolution video or long distances, this is the cable you need! collapse


Screw Dimensions

Find the right screw length for your cabinet or rack.

Types of Screws

Screw Dimensions

There are two basic kinds of screws used for cabinets and racks—panhead screws and countersunk screws—and... more/see it nowthey’re measured in two different ways. Because the standard way to measure is from the tip of the business end of the screw to where the screw rests on the material it’s fastened to, a panhead screw is measured to the bottom of its head, whereas a countersunk screw is measured to the top of its head.
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