Black Box Explains...Media converters that are really switches.
A media converter is a device that converts from one media type to another, for instance, from twisted pair to fiber to take advantage of fiber’s greater range. A traditional... more/see it nowmedia converter is a two-port Layer 1 device that performs a simple conversion of only the physical interface. It’s transparent to data and doesn't “see” or manipulate data in any way.
An Ethernet switch can also convert one media type to another, but it also creates a separate collision domain for each switch port, so that each packet is routed only to the destination device, rather than around to multiple devices on a network segment. Because switches are “smarter” than traditional media converters, they enable additional features such as multiple ports and copper ports that autosense for speed and duplex.
Switches are beginning to replace traditional 2-port media converters, leading to some fuzziness in terminology. Small 4- or 6-port Ethernet switches are very commonly called media converters. In fact, anytime you see a “Layer 2” media converter or a media converter with more than two ports, it’s really a small Ethernet switch.
Black Box Explains...PC, UPC, and APC fiber connectors.
Fiber optic cables have different types of mechanical connections. The type of connection determines the quality of the fiber optic lightwave transmission. The different types well discuss here are the... more/see it nowflat-surface, Physical Contact (PC), Ultra Physical Contact (UPC), and Angled Physical Contact (APC).
The original fiber connector is a flat-surface connection, or a flat connector. When mated, an air gap naturally forms between the two surfaces from small imperfections in the flat surfaces. The back reflection in flat connectors is about -14 dB or roughly 4%.
As technology progresses, connections improve. The most common connection now is the PC connector. Physical Contact connectors are just thatthe end faces and fibers of two cables actually touch each other when mated.
In the PC connector, the two fibers meet, as they do with the flat connector, but the end faces are polished to be slightly curved or spherical. This eliminates the air gap and forces the fibers into contact. The back reflection is about -40 dB. This connector is used in most applications.
An improvement to the PC is the UPC connector. The end faces are given an extended polishing for a better surface finish. The back reflection is reduced even more to about -55 dB. These connectors are often used in digital, CATV, and telephony systems.
The latest technology is the APC connector. The end faces are still curved but are angled at an industry-standard eight degrees. This maintains a tight connection, and it reduces back reflection to about -70 dB. These connectors are preferred for CATV and analog systems.
PC and UPC connectors have reliable, low insertion losses. But their back reflection depends on the surface finish of the fiber. The finer the fiber grain structure, the lower the back reflection. And when PC and UPC connectors are continually mated and remated, back reflection degrades at a rate of about 4 to 6 dB every 100 matings for a PC connector. APC connector back reflection does not degrade with repeated matings. collapse
Black Box Explains...10GBASE-T standard.
In June 2006, the IEEE approved the standard for 10 Gigabit/sec Ethernet, or 10GBASE-T (10-GbE). 10-GbE transmission requires a bandwidth of 500 MHz.
The 10-GbE standards.
The cabling industry is developing... more/see it nowtwo different standards that can be used in 10-GbE applications. One is for use with Category 6 (CAT6) cable, and one is for Augmented Category 6 (CAT6a).
Before discussing the standards, a definition of Alien Crosstalk is needed.
Alien Crosstalk (ANEXT) is a critical measurement unique to 10-GbE systems. Crosstalk, measured in 10/100/1000BASE-T systems, is the mixing of signals between wire pairs within a cable. Alien Crosstalk is the measurement of the signal coupling between wire pairs in different, adjacent cables.
The amount of ANEXT depends on a number of factors, including the promixity of adjacent cables and connectors, the cable length, cable twist density, and EMI. Patch panels and connecting hardware are also affected by ANEXT.
With ANEXT, the affected cable is
called the disturbed or victim cable. The surrounding cables are the disturbers.
10-GbE using CAT6.
The first set of standards defines cabling performance when using Category 6/Class E cabling for 10-GbE applications. The TIA/EIA version will be the Technical Systems Bulletin 155 (TSB 155). ISO/IEC TR 24750 is a technical report to be used for measuring existing Class E systems.
No matter what the cable length is, CAT6 cable must meet 10-GbE electrical and ANEXT specifications up to 500 MHz. However, the CAT6 standard now specifies measurements only to 250 MHz, and it does not have an ANEXT requirement. There is no guarantee CAT6 can support a 10-GbE system. But the TSB provides guidelines for ways to help mitigate ANEXT. One way to lessen or eliminate ANEXT is to use shielded equipment and cables. Another way is to follow installation guidelines, such as using non-adjacent patch panels, separating equipment cords, unbundling horizontal cabling, etc.
10GbE using CAT6a.
The second set of standards will define Augmented Category 6 (CAT6a) and Augmented Class E (Class Ea) cabling. The newer, augmented cabling systems are designed to support 10-GbE over a 100-meter horizontal channel.
The TIA/EIA version is in draft and will be published as ANSI/TIA/EIA-568B.2-AD10. It recognizes both UTP and STP CAT6a systems. It also extends CAT6 electrical parameters such as NEXT, FEXT, return loss, insertion loss, and more to 500 MHz. It specifies near- and far-end Alien Crosstalk (ANEXT, AFEXT) to 500 MHz. It also goes beyond IEEE 802.3an by establishing the electrical requirements for the permanent link and cabling components. The ISO Class Ea standard will be published in a new edition of the 11801 standard.
These standards specify requirements for each component in the channel, such as cable and connecting hardware, as well as for the permanent link and the channel. collapse
Black Box Explains...NEBS Level 3.
Network Equipment Building System (NEBS) standards set requirements for telco equipment. The standards are maintained by Telcordia Technologies, Inc., formerly Bellcore. Bellcore Special Report, SR-3580 defines three distinct functional levels... more/see it nowof NEBS compliance. The third of these levels, NEBS Level 3, is the most stringent, certifying carrier-class equipment intended for long-term use in variable environments.
NEBS Level 3 certifies that a piece of equipment can be safely used in an extreme environment. To become certified at NEBS Level 3, a device must meet strict physical, electrical, and environmental requirements to prove it will operate safely and reliably in extreme conditions. It must pass a series of tests that include extreme heat, humidity, fire, earthquakes (Zone 4), light, and noise. collapse
Black Box Explains... KVM IP gateways
Just as a gate serves as an entry or exit point to a property, a gateway serves the same purpose in the networking world. It’s the device that acts as... more/see it nowa network entrance or go-between for two or more networks.
There are different types of gateways, depending on the network.
An application gateway converts data or commands from one format to another. A VoIP gateway converts analog voice calls into VoIP packets. An IP gateway is like a media gateway, translating data from one telecommunications device to another.
Gateways often include other features and devices, such as protocol converters, routers, firewalls, encryption, voice compression, etc. Although a gateway is an essential feature of most routers, other devices, such as a PC or server, can also function as a gateway.
A KVMoIP switch contains an IP gateway, which is the pathway the KVM signals use to travel from the IP network to an existing non-IP KVM switch. It converts and directs the KVM signals, giving a user access to and control of an existing non-IP KVM switch over the Internet. collapse
Black Box Explains...Category wiring standards
The ABCs of standards
There are two primary organizations dedicated to developing and setting structured cabling standards. In North America, standards are issued by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA),... more/see it nowwhich is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The TIA was formed in April 1988 after a merger with the Electronics Industry Association (EIA). That’s why its standards are commonly known as ANSI/TIA/EIA, TIA/EIA, or TIA.
Globally, the organizations that issue standards are the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Standards are often listed as ISO/IEC. Other organizations include the Canadian Standards Association (CSA), CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardizations), and the Japanese Standards Association (JSA/JSI).
The committees of all these organizations work together and the performance requirements of the standards are very similar. But there is some confusion in terminology.
The TIA cabling components (cables, connecting hardware, and patch cords) are labeled with a ”category.” These components together form a permanent link or channel that is also called a ”category.” The ISO/IEC defines the link and channel requirements with a ”class” designation. But the components are called a ”category.”
Category 5 (CAT5) —ratified in 1991. It is no longer recognized for use in networking.
Category 5e (CAT5e), ISO/IEC 11801 Class D, ratified in 1999, is designed to support full-duplex, 4-pair transmission in 100-MHz applications. The CAT5e standard introduced the measurement for PS-NEXT, EL-FEXT, and PS-ELFEXT. CAT5e is no longer recognized for new installations. It is commonly used for 1-GbE installations.
Category 6 (CAT6) – Class E has a specified frequency of 250 MHz, significantly improved bandwidth capacity over CAT5e, and easily handles Gigabit Ethernet transmissions. CAT6 supports 1000BASE-T and, depending on the installation, 10GBASE-T (10-GbE).
10-GbE over CAT6 introduces Alien Crosstalk (ANEXT), the unwanted coupling of signals between adjacent pairs and cables. Because ANEXT in CAT6 10-GbE networks is so dependent on installation practices, TIA TSB-155-A and ISO/IEC 24750 qualifies 10-GbE over CAT6 over channels of 121 to 180 feet (37 to 55 meters) and requires it to be 100% tested, which is extremely time consuming. To mitigate ANEXT in CAT6, it is recommended that the cables be unbundled, that the space between cables be increased, and that non-adjacent patch panel ports be used. If CAT6 F/UTP cable is used, mitigation is not necessary and the length limits do not apply. CAT6 is not recommended for new 10-GbE installations.
Augmented Category 6 (CAT6A) –Class Ea was ratified in February 2008. This standard calls for 10-Gigabit Ethernet data transmission over a 4-pair copper cabling system up to 100 meters. CAT6A extends CAT6 electrical specifications from 250 MHz to 500 MHz. It introduces the ANEXT requirement. It also replaces the term Equal Level Far-End Crosstalk (ELFEXT) with Attenuation to Crosstalk Ratio, Far-End (ACRF) to mesh with ISO terminology. CAT6A provides improved insertion loss over CAT6. It is a good choice for noisy environments with lots of EMI. CAT6A is also well-suited for use with PoE+.
CAT6A UTP cable is significantly larger than CAT6 cable. It features larger conductors, usually 22 AWG, and is designed with more space between the pairs to minimize ANEXT. The outside diameter of CAT6A cable averages 0.29"–0.35" compared to 0.21"–0.24" for CAT6 cable. This reduces the number of cables you can fit in a conduit. At a 40% fill ratio, you can run three CAT6A cables in a 3/4" conduit vs. five CAT6 cables.
CAT6A UTP vs. F/UTP. Although shielded cable has the reputation of being bigger, bulkier, and more difficult to handle and install than unshielded cable, this is not the case with CAT6A F/UTP cable. It is actually easier to handle, requires less space to maintain proper bend radius, and uses smaller conduits, cable trays, and pathways. CAT6A UTP has a larger outside diameter than CAT6A F/UTP cable. This creates a great difference in the fill rate of cabling pathways. An increase in the outside diameter of 0.1", from 0.25" to 0.35" for example, represents a 21% increase in fill volume. In general, CAT6A F/UTP provides a minimum of 35% more fill capacity than CAT6A UTP. In addition, innovations in connector technology have made terminating CAT6A F/UTP actually easier than terminating bulkier CAT6A UTP.
Category 7 (CAT7) –Class F was published in 2002 by the ISO/IEC. It is not a TIA recognized standard and TIA plans to skip over it.
Category 7 specifies minimum performance standards for fully shielded cable (individually shielded pairs surrounded by an overall shield) transmitting data at rates up to 600 MHz. It comes with one of two connector styles: the standard RJ plug and a non-RJ-style plug and socket interface specified in IEC 61076-2-104:2.
Category 7a (CAT7a) –Class Fa (Amendment 1 and 2 to ISO/IEC 11801, 2nd Ed.) is a fully shielded cable that extends frequency from 600 MHz to 1000 MHz.
Category 8 – The TIA decided to skip Category 7 and 7A and go to Category 8. The TR-42.7 subcommittee is establishing specs for a 40-Gbps twisted-pair solution with a 2-GHz frequency. The proposed standard is for use in a two-point channel in a data center at 30 meters. It is expected to be ratified in February 2016. The TR-42.7 subcommittee is also incorporating ISO/IEC Class II cabling performance criteria into the standard. It is expected to be called TIA-568-C.2-1. The difference between Class I and Class II is that Class II allows for three different styles of connectors that are not compatible with one another or with the RJ-45 connector. Class I uses an RJ-45 connector and is backward compatible with components up to Category 6A.
Black Box Explains...DIN rail usage.
DIN rail is an industry-standard metal rail, usually installed inside an electrical enclosure, which serves as a mount for small electrical devices specially designed for use with DIN rails. These... more/see it nowdevices snap right onto the rails, sometimes requiring a set screw, and are then wired together.
Many different devices are available for mounting on DIN rails: terminal blocks, interface converters, media converter switches, repeaters, surge protectors, PLCs, fuses, or power supplies, just to name a few.
DIN rails are a space-saving way to accommodate components. And because DIN rail devices are so easy to install, replace, maintain, and inspect, this is an exceptionally convenient system that has become very popular in recent years.
A standard DIN rail is 35 mm wide with raised-lip edges, its dimensions outlined by the Deutsche Institut für Normung, a German standardization body. Rails are generally available in aluminum or steel and may be cut for installation. Depending on the requirements of the mounted components, the rail may need to be grounded. collapse
Black Box Explains...Ceramic and composite ferrules.
Cables manufactured with ceramic ferrules are ideal for mission-critical applications or connections that are changed frequently. These cables are high quality and typically have a very long life. Ceramic ferrules... more/see it noware more precisely molded and fit closer to the fiber than their composite counterparts, which gives them a lower optical loss.
On the other hand, cables with composite ferrules are ideal for less critical applications or connections that won’t be changed frequently. Composite ferrule cables are characterized by low loss, good quality, and long life. collapse
Black Box Explains...Token Ring Cabling
The original Token Ring specifications called for shielded twisted-pair (STP) cable using either a DB9 connector or a unique square connector called the IBM data connector. Later, Token Ring was... more/see it nowadapted to use conventional unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable with RJ-45 connectors. The most common kinds of Token Ring cabling in use to day are Type 1 and Type 6 STP as well as Type 3 UTP.
Type 1 shielded twisted-pair (STP) cable is the original wiring for Token Ring. In Type 1 cabling, each wire is constructed of 22 AWG solid copper. Type 1 cable is not as flexible as Type 6 cable and is generally used for long runs in areas where twists and turns are less likely, such as in walls or conduits.
Type 6 Token Ring cable is a lighter, more pliable version of Type 1 cable. It’s constructed of two stranded 26 AWG copper pairs that are surrounded by an overall braided shield. Type 6 cable is commonly used in offices and open areas, and its flexible construction enables it to negotiate multiple twists and turns.
Type 3 or UTP Token Ring cabling uses the same twisted-pair CAT3, CAT5, or CAT5e cabling with RJ-45 connectors as 10BASE-T Ethernet does. Attaching older Type 1 Token Ring to UTP Token Ring requires a balun or adapter. collapse
Black Box Explains...Super Dynamic II.
This proprietary processing technology developed by Panasonic® eliminates backlighting problems commonly seen with security camera systems. It gives you clear images regardless of the lighting situation and a dynamic range... more/see it nowthats 64 times greater than that offered by conventional video cameras.
Super Dynamic II accomplishes this by using a double-speed, charge-coupled device (CCD). It takes two pictures in the time
it takes for a conventional CCD to capture one. The first Super Dynamic II picture is a long exposure (1⁄60th of a second) that captures a scenes dark areas; the second is a short exposure (from 1⁄1000th to 1⁄4000th of a second) that captures the scenes bright areas. Super Dynamic II then combines the best quality signals from the two images and outputs them as a Composite analog image.
The technologys enhanced Digital Signal Processing (DSP) circuitry corrects gradation to give you proper black level references so black areas within a scene appear blacknot washed-out shades of gray. It also enables images with high contrast to be seen on the screen.
Whats more, Super Dynamic II technology provides exceptional sensitivity (0.8 lux using an F1.4 lens), enabling the camera to capture vivid details and color even in low-light applications. collapse