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Black Box Explains...Super Dynamic II.

This proprietary processing technology developed by Panasonic® eliminates backlighting problems commonly seen with security camera systems. It gives you clear images regardless of the lighting situation and a dynamic range... more/see it nowthat’s 64 times greater than that offered by conventional video cameras.
Super Dynamic II™ accomplishes this by using a double-speed, charge-coupled device (CCD). It takes two pictures in the time
it takes for a conventional CCD to capture one. The first Super Dynamic II picture is a long exposure (1⁄60th of a second) that captures a scene’s dark areas; the second is a short exposure (from 1⁄1000th to 1⁄4000th of a second) that captures the scene’s bright areas. Super Dynamic II then combines the best quality signals from the two images and outputs them as a Composite analog image.
The technology’s enhanced Digital Signal Processing (DSP) circuitry corrects gradation to give you proper black level references so black areas within a scene appear black—not washed-out shades of gray. It also enables images with high contrast to be seen on the screen.
What’s more, Super Dynamic II technology provides exceptional sensitivity (0.8 lux using an F1.4 lens), enabling the camera to capture vivid details and color even in low-light applications. collapse


Black Box Explains...Beyond T1—other standards for high-speed circuits.

While there are many applications for basic T1 rate service (1.536 Mbps), some applications require much more bandwidth. One of the most attractive features of T1 is the number of... more/see it nowoptions available to accommodate these kinds of demands. The important thing to remember is that all of these higher-speed services operate with the same consistent framing formats as the standard T1 service.

T1 is a high-speed service with a clock speed of 1.544 Mbps. It’s made up of 24 64-kbps DS0 (Digital-Signal [zero]) subchannels that together can support throughput rates of up to 1.536 Mbps. But there are higher levels of T1 service that are also available. For instance, T1C service doubles the T1 rate. It supports 3.152 Mbps with a total of 48 DS0s for top-speed applications. In a T1C environment, two T1 lines are combined into one using a special T1 mux.

The next-highest level of service is called T2. It offers 6.312 Mbps over 96 DS0s by multi-plexing 4 T1 lines into a single high-speed line.

The next two levels of service are exponentially larger than T2. A high-speed T3 trunk line is 28 times larger than a standard T1 line. T3 brings 44.736 Mbps to a customer site via 672 DS0s. This tremendous capacity is made possible by multiplexing 28 T1 lines or combina?tions of T2 and T1 lines.

Finally, T4 service offers a bandwidth potential of 274.176 Mbps, made up of 4032 64-kbps DS0 subchannels. At 168 times the size of a standard 1.544-Mbps line, T4 service dwarfs T1. The physical connections require multiplexing 6 T3 lines or 168 T1 lines into a single high-speed trunk.

With so many incredibly high-speed T-level service options available, system administrators have great flexibility to configure their operations for maximum efficiency and economy.

It’s important to remember that these various levels of T1 services can be implemented simultaneously within a particularly large enterprise to support complex network configurations.

Of course, this kind of application has the potential to become somewhat overwhelming from a management standpoint. However, as long as you keep track of the individual DS0s, you should always be able to accurately gauge how much available bandwidth you have at your disposal. collapse


Black Box Explains...Advanced printer switches.

Matrix—A matrix switch is a switch with a keypad for selecting one of many input ports to connect to any one of many output ports.

Port-Contention—A port-contention switch is an... more/see it nowautomatic electronic switch that can be serial or parallel. It has multiple input ports but only one output port. The switch monitors all ports simultaneously. When a port receives data, it prints and all the other ports have to wait.

Scanning—A scanning switch is like a port-contention switch, but it scans ports one at a time to find one that’s sending data.

Code-Operated—Code-operated switches receive a code (data string) from a PC or terminal to select a port.

Matrix Code-Operated—This matrix version of the code-operated switch can be an any-port to any-port switch. This means than any port on the switch can attach to any other port or any two or more ports can make a simultaneous link and transfer data. collapse


Black Box Explains…Media converters that also work as switches.

Media converters transparently convert the incoming electrical signal from one cable type and then transmit it over another type—thick coax to Thin, UTP to fiber, and so on. Traditionally, media... more/see it nowconverters were purely Layer 1 devices that only converted electrical signals and physical media and didn’t do anything to the data coming through the link.

Today’s media converters, however, are often more advanced Layer 2 Ethernet devices that, like traditional media converters, provide Layer 1 electrical and physical conversion. But, unlike traditional media converters, they also provide Layer 2 services and route Ethernet packets based on MAC address. These media converters are often called media converter switches, switching media converters, or Layer 2 media converters. They enable you to have multiple connections rather than just one simple in-and-out connection. And because they’re switches, they increase network efficiency.

Media converters are often used to connect newer 100-Mbps, Gigabit Ethernet, or ATM equipment to existing networks, which are generally 10BASE-T, 100BASE-T, or a mixture of both. They can also be used in pairs to insert a fiber segment into copper networks to increase cabling distances and enhance immunity to electromagnetic interference.

Rent an apartment…
Media converters are available in standalone models that convert between two different media types and in chassis-based models that house many media converters in a a single chassis.

Standalone models convert between two media. But, like a small apartment, they can be outgrown.

Consider your current and future applications before selecting a media converter. A good way to anticipate future network requirements is to choose media converters that work as standalone devices but can be rackmounted if needed later.

…or buy a house.
Chassis-based or modular media converter systems are normally rackmountable and have slots to house media converter modules. Like a well-planned house, the chassis gives you room to grow. These are used when many Ethernet segments of different media types need to be connected in a central location. Modules are available for the same conversions performed by the standalone converters, and they enable you to mix different media types such as 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, 100BASE-FX, ATM, and Gigabit modules. Although enterprise-level chassis-based systems generally have modules that can only be used in a chassis, many midrange systems feature modules that can be used individually or in a chassis. collapse


Black Box Explains…Remote monitoring.

Beyond virus protection.
It has become almost automatic to protect your data center by backing up your servers, installing firewalls and virus protection, and keeping the protection up-to-date.

But what about... more/see it nowmore tangible threats? Do you have hot spots in your racks? If the cooling system shuts down, how will you know when temperatures climb out of control? Are you alerted to humidity changes or water leaks that threaten your equipment?

Planning for the unexpected is a critical task because there are more systems performing mission-critical functions than ever before. These systems are often deployed without the proper environmental infrastructure to support them. Equipment density is increasing constantly, which is creating more stress on ventilation and power.

The top three IT risks:
1. Environmental disruption.
The number one cause of downtime for remote locations, environmental problems go beyond fires and floods and affect as much as 30% of a company’s mission-critical infrastructure. Cooling and power are key points of exposure and increase as equipment density does.

2. Unnecessary risk.
When systems are housed in less-than-optimal settings, or are in remote and unsupervised locations, any error causes downtime. Yet, it’s not practical to have someone babysitting the servers.

3. Sabotage.
Regardless of the probability, terrorism is now something each of us must plan for. Your systems can also be brought down from within if the proper security safeguards are not in place.

What’s an environmental monitoring system?
Environmental monitoring products enable you to actively monitor the conditions in your rack, server room, data center, or anywhere else you need to protect critical assets. Conditions monitored include extreme temperatures, humidity, power spikes and surges, water leaks, smoke, and chemical materials. With proper environmental monitoring, you’re alerted to any conditions that could have an adverse effect on your mission-critical equipment. These products can also alert you to potential damage from human error, hacking, or prying fingers.

Environmental monitors consist of three main elements: a base unit, probes or sensors, and network connectivity and integration. The base units may contain one or more built-in sensors, as well as ports for hooking up external probes. Additionally, they include an Ethernet port and have software for remote configuration and graphing. This software may also work with existing network management software, such as SNMP systems.

Measurement.
An environmental monitoring appliance displays the values measured by the attached probes, e.g. temperature, humidity, airflow, status of dry contact, door, motion detector, and other sensors.

Data collecting and graphing.
Measurements are periodically stored in the internal memory or external storage media and displayed as graphs.

Alerting.
When the measured value exceeds the predefined threshold, it triggers an alert: a blinking LED on the front panel, an audible alarm, SNMP trap, e-mail, etc. The environmental monitoring appliance can also activate an external alarm system like a siren or strobe light.

Benefits of environmental monitoring:

  • Reduced downtime—When things go wrong, you’re the first to know. Minimize downtime by being alerted about conditions that cause damage to servers and other network devices.
  • Increased profits—Environmental monitoring systems are easy to implement. Also, they help you cut replacement equipment costs and redistribute your workforce more effectively.
  • Increased employee satisfaction—With built-in notification features like e-mail, SMS, and SNMP traps, a remote monitoring system enables employees to better manage their work.

  • Applications:
    Envornmental and security monitoring systems can be used for a variety of applications, including:
  • Data center monitoring
  • Computer room monitoring
  • Rackmount industrial equipment
  • Telecommunications
  • UPS/battery backup
  • Educational institutions
  • Food and beverage applications
  • Buildings/warehouses
  • Air conditioner/refrigerants/freezer monitoring
  • Greenhouses
  • collapse


    Black Box Explains... Buffers

    A buffer (also called a spooler or a cache) is a temporary storage device used to share printers and compensate for a difference in speed and data flow between two... more/see it nowdevices. Buffers use RAM (Random-Access Memory) to take in data and hold it until the receiving device handles it.

    A buffer serving a computer can be installed either internally or externally. Internal computer buffers are common in the forms of keyboard inputs, data caches, and video memory. An external buffer is usually used for printing.

    An external buffer downloads jobs to the printer, freeing the computer so you can get back to work sooner.

    A print buffer’s ports can be serial, parallel, or serial and parallel. Because a buffer’s ports operate independently of each other, a buffer also can be made to perform serial-to-parallel or parallel-to-serial conversion or to change the word structure and/or serial data rate (baud rate) of the data.

    While most buffers are FIFO (First In, First Out), some advanced units can function as random-access buffers. For most serial buffers, hardware flow control is required, but some also support software (X-ON/X-OFF) control. Most buffers support printing of multiple copies of a document, provided the buffer has enough memory to store the entire print job. collapse


    Black Box Explains...Virtual LANs (VLANs).

    True to their name, VLANs are literally “virtual“ LANs—mini subLANs that, once configured, can exist and function logically as single, secure network segments, even though they may be part of... more/see it nowa much larger physical LAN.

    VLAN technology is ideal for enterprises with far-reaching networks. Instead of having to make expensive, time-consuming service calls, system administrators can configure or reconfigure workstations easily or set up secure network segments using simple point-and-click, drag-and-drop management utilities. VLANs provide a way to define dynamic new LAN pathways and create innovative virtual network segments that can range far beyond the traditional limits of geographically isolated workstation groups radiating from centralized hubs.

    For instance, using VLAN switches, you can establish a secure VLAN made up of select devices located throughout your enterprise (managers’ workstations, for example) or any other device that you decide requires full access to the VLAN you’ve created.

    According to Cisco, a VLAN is a switched network logically segmented by functions, project teams, or applications regardless of the physical location of users. You can assign each switch port to a different VLAN. Ports configured in the same VLAN share broadcasts; ports that don’t belong to the VLAN don’t share the data.

    VLAN switches group users and ports logically across the enterprise—they don’t impose physical constraints like in a shared-hub architecture. In replacing shared hubs, VLAN switches remove the physical barriers imposed by each wiring closet.

    To learn more about smart networking with VLANs, call the experts in our Local Area Network Support group at 724-746-5500, press 1, 2, 4. collapse


    Black Box Explains...Layer 3 switching.

    In the last decade, network topologies have typically featured routers along with hubs or switches. The hub or switch acts as a central wiring point for LAN segments while the... more/see it nowrouter takes care of higher-level functions such as protocol translation, traffic between LAN segments, and wide-area access.

    Layer 3 switching, which combines Layer 2 switching and Layer 3 IP routing, provides a more cost-effective way of setting up LANs by incorporating switching and routing into one device. While a traditional Layer 2 switch simply sends data along without examining it, a Layer 3 switch incorporates some features of a router in that it examines data packets before sending them on their way. The integration of switching and routing in a Layer 3 switch takes advantage of the speed of a switch and the intelligence of a router in one economical package.

    There are two basic types of Layer 3 switching: packet-by-packet Layer 3 (PPL3) and cut-through Layer 3.

    PPL3 switches are technically routers in that they examine all packets before forwarding them to their destinations. They achieve top speed by running protocols such as OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) and by using cache routing tables. Because these switches understand and take advantage of network topology, they can blow the doors off traditional routers with speeds of more than 7,000,000 (that’s seven million!) packets per second.

    Cut-through Layer 3 switching relies on a shortcut for top speed. Cut-through Layer 3 switches, rather than examining every packet, examine only the first in a series to determine its destination. Once the destination is known, the data flow is switched at Layer 2 to achieve high speeds. collapse


    Black Box Explains...Quick disconnnects.

    A quick disconnect enables you to disconnect your headset without disconnecting your call or taking off your headset. This option is expecially convenient when you need to leave your desk... more/see it nowand keep your caller on the line. When you return to your desk, all you need to do is reconnect the plug and you’re talking again. The quick disconnect works well for call centers and busy offices where files aren’t at your desk or when you need to speak to a supervisor. collapse


    Black Box Explains...Fiber connectors.

    • The ST® connector, which uses a bayonet locking system, is the most common connector.

    • The SC connector features a molded body and a push- pull locking system.

    • The FDDI... more/see it nowconnector comes with a 2.5-mm free-floating ferrule and a fixed shroud to minimize light loss.

    • The MT-RJ connector, a small-form RJ-style connector, features a molded body and uses cleave-and-leave splicing.

    • The LC connector, a small-form factor connector, features a ceramic ferrule and looks like a mini SC connector.

    • The VF-45™connector is another small-form factor connector. It uses a unique “V-groove“ design.

    • The FC connector is a threaded body connector. Secure it by screwing the connector body to the mating threads. Used in high-vibration environments.

    • The MTO/MTP connector is a fiber connector that uses high-fiber-count ribbon cable. It’s used in high-density fiber applications.

    • The MU connector resembles the larger SC connector. It uses a simple push-pull latching connection and is well suited for high-density applications.
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