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Black Box Explains...Fiber connectors.

• The ST® connector, which uses a bayonet locking system, is the most common connector.

• The SC connector features a molded body and a push- pull locking system.

• The FDDI... more/see it nowconnector comes with a 2.5-mm free-floating ferrule and a fixed shroud to minimize light loss.

• The MT-RJ connector, a small-form RJ-style connector, features a molded body and uses cleave-and-leave splicing.

• The LC connector, a small-form factor connector, features a ceramic ferrule and looks like a mini SC connector.

• The VF-45™connector is another small-form factor connector. It uses a unique “V-groove“ design.

• The FC connector is a threaded body connector. Secure it by screwing the connector body to the mating threads. Used in high-vibration environments.

• The MTO/MTP connector is a fiber connector that uses high-fiber-count ribbon cable. It’s used in high-density fiber applications.

• The MU connector resembles the larger SC connector. It uses a simple push-pull latching connection and is well suited for high-density applications.
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Black Box Explains…Media converters that also work as switches.

Media converters transparently convert the incoming electrical signal from one cable type and then transmit it over another type—thick coax to Thin, UTP to fiber, and so on. Traditionally, media... more/see it nowconverters were purely Layer 1 devices that only converted electrical signals and physical media and didn’t do anything to the data coming through the link.

Today’s media converters, however, are often more advanced Layer 2 Ethernet devices that, like traditional media converters, provide Layer 1 electrical and physical conversion. But, unlike traditional media converters, they also provide Layer 2 services and route Ethernet packets based on MAC address. These media converters are often called media converter switches, switching media converters, or Layer 2 media converters. They enable you to have multiple connections rather than just one simple in-and-out connection. And because they’re switches, they increase network efficiency.

Media converters are often used to connect newer 100-Mbps, Gigabit Ethernet, or ATM equipment to existing networks, which are generally 10BASE-T, 100BASE-T, or a mixture of both. They can also be used in pairs to insert a fiber segment into copper networks to increase cabling distances and enhance immunity to electromagnetic interference.

Rent an apartment…
Media converters are available in standalone models that convert between two different media types and in chassis-based models that house many media converters in a a single chassis.

Standalone models convert between two media. But, like a small apartment, they can be outgrown.

Consider your current and future applications before selecting a media converter. A good way to anticipate future network requirements is to choose media converters that work as standalone devices but can be rackmounted if needed later.

…or buy a house.
Chassis-based or modular media converter systems are normally rackmountable and have slots to house media converter modules. Like a well-planned house, the chassis gives you room to grow. These are used when many Ethernet segments of different media types need to be connected in a central location. Modules are available for the same conversions performed by the standalone converters, and they enable you to mix different media types such as 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, 100BASE-FX, ATM, and Gigabit modules. Although enterprise-level chassis-based systems generally have modules that can only be used in a chassis, many midrange systems feature modules that can be used individually or in a chassis. collapse


Black Box Explains...Shielded vs. unshielded cable.

The environment determines whether cable should be shielded or unshielded.

Shielding is the sheath surrounding and protecting the cable wires from electromagnetic leakage and interference. Sources of this electromagnetic activity... more/see it now(EMI)—commonly referred to as noise—include elevator motors, fluorescent lights, generators, air conditioners, and photocopiers. To protect data in areas with high EMI, choose a shielded cable.

Foil is the most basic cable shield, but a copper-braid shield provides more protection. Shielding also protects cables from rodent damage. Use a foil-shielded cable in busy office or retail environments. For industrial environments, you might want to choose a copper-braid shield.

For quiet office environments, choose unshielded cable. collapse


Black Box Explains...Using repeaters to extend your network.

A repeater is a signal regenerator. It amplifies and regenerates received data and relays data from one length of cable to another—this can be between two segments of the same... more/see it nowcable type (such as UTP to UTP) or between two lengths of entirely different cable types (such as UTP to ThinNet). Because repeaters operate at the Data Link layer of the OSI model, having too many repeaters on a network introduces delays and causes problems with signal timing. Ethernet allows a maximum of two IRLs (InterRepeater Links) between any two devices and up to four per network. A hub also counts as a repeater. (If simple media conversion is your goal, use media converters instead. For details, contact Tech Suport.)

Repeaters boost distance by amplifying the signal.
A repeater actually regenerates and amplifies the signal to gain distance. The repeater not only changes the media type, it also gives the signal a boost to send it over a longer distance.

Repeaters boost distance through a change in media.
In addition to amplifying the signal, a repeater can also add distance to your network by enabling you to change to a media type such as fiber that supports longer distances. collapse


Black Box Explains...KVMoIP access technology.

KVMoIP access technology extends keyboard, video, and mouse (KVM) signals from any computer or server over TCP/IP via a LAN, WAN, or Internet connection. Through this KVM over IP (KVMoIP)... more/see it nowconnection, remote users can access and control a number of servers simultaneously from wherever they are, inside or outside the organization, and anywhere in the world. This technology works in diverse hardware environments and is ideal for managing multilocation data centers and branch offices.

These capabilities translate into real savings for companies having to deal with the proliferation of servers in many offices, particularly for corporations and government agencies required to deliver 24/7 uptime and real-time access to mission-critical servers 365 days a year.

KVMoIP products combine the advantages of remote access software with the benefits of KVM switching technology. Like most KVM switches, KVMoIP products don’t require any software to be loaded on the host computers. They interface directly with the keyboard, monitor, and mouse connectors of the host computer or KVM switch. Circuitry within the KVMoIP device digitizes the incoming video signal and processes it into digital data that is communicated to a viewer program running on a remote client computer over a LAN/WAN or the public Internet.

By addressing network issues from a remote location, you can simply manage issues from your desk, or even save yourself the hassle of traveling to a site in the middle of the night. Use a browser-based connection, even a cell phone or PDA, to reboot or administer a roomful of servers remotely—a real convenience.

KVMoIP products that feature virtual media technology take that convenience further. They enable a remote user to effortlessly move files from a mass storage device—a USB flash drive or CD-ROM drive, for instance—from your location to the computer on which you’re working. Cost savings are realized through reduced downtime and less travel. Plus, in some cases, there‘s no to need replace existing KVM switches with proprietary ones to get a KVMoIP server-control solution.

The Black Box difference
Black Box® ServSwitch™ KVMoIP solutions go further than many other KVMoIP products on the market. They not only enable you to access remote servers, but they do this at the BIOS level—important when you go need to troubleshoot from off-site and don’t want to a dispatch a technician. Install or recover software applications and install OS patches from your location anywhere in the world. Plus, this BIOS-level control is possible regardless of the server’s brand or model and even works if the operating system is down.

The ServReach™ system is also designed for IT managers seeking global centralized KVM management in a world of mushrooming servers and complexity. This global platform works by consolidating all server access and devices via locally connected KVMoIP devices. All this hardware is then united under a single management appliance or software “umbrella” providing global, yet fully secure, out-of-band control.

The ServReach system works seamlessly with more than 500 variations of analog KVM switches from a multitude of vendors and manufacturers. Because it’s vendor independent, you don’t need to replace your data center’s entire KVM infrastructure. ServReach simply grafts global centralized KVM management onto the existing server room/data center, aligning with third-party KVM switches already in place. This is done with the ServReach KVMGate (KVIP1000A), an IP gateway device designed to connect to each of the legacy KVM devices to provide global centralized KVM management for a fraction of the cost of competitive systems, ensuring a faster and greater ROI.

If you’re planning on opening or acquiring a new data center or a large number of new servers, the ServReach KVManager (KVMGR) is the answer. It can provide any-by-any access via the ServReach KVMCube (KVIP1001A), a compact, rackmountable, digital matrix IP device that gives fully secure, non-blocking access for any of the users to any of the servers simultaneously.

In addition, the servers controlled by legacy KVM switches via KVMGate can still be managed by the ServReach KVManager at the same time as the new servers controlled through a gateway. With all the servers under the same KVManager umbrella, data centers can now easily acquire new servers and devices without having to worry about how to incorporate the new infrastructure with the old. For more information on Black Box KVMoIP solutions, visit blackbox.com/go/ServReach. Find out more by watching a KVMoIP demo and accessing related white papers. collapse


Using optical break locators and OTDRs.

An optical time-domain reflectometer, or OTDR, is an instrument used to analyze optical fiber. It sends a series of light pulses into the fiber under test and analyzes the light... more/see it nowthat is scattered and reflected back. These reflections are caused by faults such as breaks, splices, connectors, and adapters along the length of the fiber. The OTDR is able to estimate the overall length, attenuation or loss, and distance to faults. It’s also able to “see” past many of these “events” and display the results. The user is then able to see all the events along the length of the fiber run.

However, OTDRs do have a weakness?—?a blind spot that prevents them from seeing faults in the beginning of the fiber cable under test. To compensate for this, fiber launch boxes are used. Launch boxes come in predetermined lengths and connector types. These lengths of fiber enable you to compensate for this blind spot and analyze the length of fiber without missing any faults that may be in the first 10–30 meters of the cable.

An optical break locator, or OBL, is a simplified version of an OTDR. It’s able to detect high-loss events in the fiber such as breaks and determine the distance to the break. OBLs are much simpler to use than an OTDR and require no special training. However, there are limitations. They can only see to the first fault or event and do not display information on the portion of fiber after this event. collapse


Black Box Explains…Liquid cooling.

The trend toward high-density installations with higher-powered CPUs has made heat a critical issue in data centers. Blade servers present a special challenge—a rack of blade servers can dissipate more... more/see it nowthan 25 kW, generating more heat than an electric oven.

Heat-generated problems
The heat generated in today’s high-density data centers can shorten equipment lifespan, negatively affect equipment performance, and cause downtime. Traditional air-cooling methods such as hot/cold aisle arrangements simply can’t keep up with these heat-generating installations. Data center managers often try to compensate for the inefficiency of air cooling by under-populating racks, but this wastes space—an often scarce commodity in modern data centers.

Why liquid
Because of the inherent inefficiencies of air cooling, many data centers have turned to liquid cooling through water or other refrigerants. Liquids have far greater heat transfer properties than air—water is 3400 times more efficient than air—and can cool far greater equipment densities.

Liquid cooling is usually done at the rack level using the airflow from the servers to move the heat to a cooling unit where it’s removed by liquid, neutralizing heat at the source before it enters the room. Liquid cooling may also be done at the component level, where cooling liquid is delivered directly to individual components. Liquid cooling may also arrive in the form of portable units for cooling hot spots.

Liquid cooling options
Types of liquid cooling commonly used in data centers include:

  • Cabinet-door liquid cooling: With this method, cooling units are special cabinet doors that contain sealed tubes filled with chilled liquid. The liquid is circulated through the door to remove heat vented by equipment fans. Because liquid-cooled doors can replace standard cabinet doors, they’re the favored method for retrofitting liquid cooling into existing data centers.
  • Integrated liquid cooling: This consists of a specialized sealed cabinet that has channels for liquid cooling built into it to act as heat exchangers. Fans move hot air past the heat exchangers before sending the cooled air back to the servers. These cabinets are closed systems that release very little heat into the room.
  • Component-based liquid cooling: Some servers are preconfigured with integrated liquid-based cooling modules. After the servers are installed, liquid is circulated through the cooling modules.
  • Immersion cooling: This rather counterintuitive cooling method immerses servers in a non-conductive liquid, which is circulated to cool the servers.
  • Portable liquid cooling: These are small units that operate by blowing air across water-cooled coils. They can usually accept water from any source—including a nearby faucet. They’re generally plumbed with ordinary garden hoses and require no special skills to use. Portable cooling units are intended for emergency cooling rather than as a permanent solution.


Liquid cooling requires a shift in the way you think about cooling. Installation may require that you acquire a new skill set or hire a professional installer. However, the space savings and cost savings gained through liquid cooling more than make up for the inconvenience of installing a new cooling technology.

Not only does liquid cooling enable data centers to operate at far greater densities than conventional air cooling does, it gets rid of the infrastructure associated with air cooling, enabling you to eliminate hot/cold aisles and raised floors. Liquid cooling can support from 25 to 80% more equipment in the same footprint, resulting in significantly lower infrastructure costs.

Add to this the fact that cooling is often the majority of a data center’s operating cost, and it’s plain to see why an investment in the efficiency of liquid cooling goes right to the bottom line. collapse


Black Box Explains... G.703.

G.703 is the ITU-T recommendation covering the 4-wire physical interface and digital signaling specification for transmission at 2.048 Mbps (E1). G.703 also includes specifications for U.S. 1.544-Mbps T1 but is... more/see it nowstill generally used to refer to the European 2.048-Mbps transmission interface. collapse


Black Box Explains... Basic Printer Switches

Mechanical—A mechanical switch is operated by a knob or by push buttons and uses a set of copper or gold-plated copper contacts to make a connection. The internal resistance created... more/see it nowby this type of connection will affect your signal’s transmission distance and must be taken into account when calculating cable lengths.

Electronic—Although electronic switches are controlled by knobs and pushbuttons like mechanical switches, the switching is accomplished with electronic gates not mechanical contacts. Electronic switches don’t have the internal resistance of a mechanical switch—some even have the ability to drive signals for longer distances. And since they don’t generate electronic spikes like mechanical switches, they’re safe for sensitive components such as HP® laser printers. Some electronic switches can be operated remotely. collapse


Black Box Explains... ServSwitch Multi and audio cable.

Get more out of your ServSwitch Multi. Add audio cable, a set of speakers, and a microphone to each CPU. Audio cable turns your ServSwitch Multi into the ideal system... more/see it nowfor education, training, retail, medical, and multimedia office environments.

Audio cable isn’t just for the ServSwitch Multi either. You can also use it with servers that give off audible alarms.

So even if you don’t have audio equipment now—plan ahead. When you’re ready to add audio equipment, just plug in our audio cable. collapse

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