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Media converters transparently convert the incoming electrical signal from one cable type and then transmit it over another type—thick coax to Thin, UTP to fiber, and so on. Traditionally, media... more/see it nowconverters were purely Layer 1 devices that only converted electrical signals and physical media and didn’t do anything to the data coming through the link.
Today’s media converters, however, are often more advanced Layer 2 Ethernet devices that, like traditional media converters, provide Layer 1 electrical and physical conversion. But, unlike traditional media converters, they also provide Layer 2 services and route Ethernet packets based on MAC address. These media converters are often called media converter switches, switching media converters, or Layer 2 media converters. They enable you to have multiple connections rather than just one simple in-and-out connection. And because they’re switches, they increase network efficiency.
Media converters are often used to connect newer 100-Mbps, Gigabit Ethernet, or ATM equipment to existing networks, which are generally 10BASE-T, 100BASE-T, or a mixture of both. They can also be used in pairs to insert a fiber segment into copper networks to increase cabling distances and enhance immunity to electromagnetic interference.
Rent an apartment…
Media converters are available in standalone models that convert between two different media types and in chassis-based models that house many media converters in a a single chassis.
Standalone models convert between two media. But, like a small apartment, they can be outgrown.
Consider your current and future applications before selecting a media converter. A good way to anticipate future network requirements is to choose media converters that work as standalone devices but can be rackmounted if needed later.
…or buy a house.
Chassis-based or modular media converter systems are normally rackmountable and have slots to house media converter modules. Like a well-planned house, the chassis gives you room to grow. These are used when many Ethernet segments of different media types need to be connected in a central location. Modules are available for the same conversions performed by the standalone converters, and they enable you to mix different media types such as 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, 100BASE-FX, ATM, and Gigabit modules. Although enterprise-level chassis-based systems generally have modules that can only be used in a chassis, many midrange systems feature modules that can be used individually or in a chassis. collapse
What is USB?
Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a royalty-free bus specification developed in the 1990s by leading manufacturers in the PC and telephony industries to support plug-and-play peripheral connections. USB... more/see it nowhas standardized how peripherals, such as keyboards, disk drivers, cameras, printers, and hubs) are connected to computers.
USB offers increased bandwidth, isochronous and asynchronous data transfer, and lower cost than older input/output ports. Designed to consolidate the cable clutter associated with multiple peripherals and ports, USB supports all types of computer- and telephone-related devices.
Universal Serial Bus (USB) USB detects and configures the new devices instantly.
Before USB, adding peripherals required skill. You had to open your computer to install a card, set DIP switches, and make IRQ settings. Now you can connect digital printers, recorders, backup drives, and other devices in seconds. USB detects and configures the new devices instantly.
Benefits of USB.
• USB is “universal.” Almost every device today has a USB port of some type.
• Convenient plug-and-play connections. No powering down. No rebooting.
• Power. USB supplies power so you don’t have to worry about adding power. The A socket supplies the power.
• Speed. USB is fast and getting faster. The original USB 1.0 had a data rate of 1.5 Mbps. USB 3.0 has a data rate of 4.8 Gbps.
USB 1.1, introduced in 1995, is the original USB standard. It has two data rates: 12 Mbps (Full-Speed) for devices such as disk drives that need high-speed throughput and 1.5 Mbps (Low-Speed) for devices such as joysticks that need much lower bandwidth.
In 2002, USB 2.0, (High-Speed) was introduced. This version is backward-compatible with USB 1.1. It increases the speed of the peripheral to PC connection from 12 Mbps to 480 Mbps, or 40 times faster than USB 1.1.
This increase in bandwidth enhances the use of external peripherals that require high throughput, such as printers, cameras, video equipment, and more. USB 2.0 supports demanding applications, such as Web publishing, in which multiple high-speed devices run simultaneously.
USB 3.0 (SuperSpeed) (2008) provides vast improvements over USB 2.0. USB 3.0 has speeds up to 5 Gbps, nearly ten times that of USB 2.0. USB 3.0 adds a physical bus running in parallel with the existing 2.0 bus.
USB 3.0 is designed to be backward compatible with USB 2.0.
USB 3.0 Connector
USB 3.0 has a flat USB Type A plug, but inside there is an extra set of connectors and the edge of the plug is blue instead of white. The Type B plug looks different with an extra set of connectors.
Type A plugs from USB 3.0 and 2.0 are designed to interoperate. USB 3.0 Type B plugs are larger than USB 2.0 plugs. USB 2.0 Type B plugs can be inserted into USB 3.0 receptacles, but the opposite is not possible.
USB 3.0 Cable
The USB 3.0 cable contains nine wires—four wire pairs plus a ground. It has two more data pairs than USB 2.0, which has one pair for data and one pair for power. The extra pairs enable USB 3.0 to support bidirectional asynchronous, full-duplex data transfer instead of USB 2.0’s half-duplex polling method.
USB 3.0 Power
USB 3.0 provides 50% more power than USB 2.0 (150 mA vs 100 mA) to unconfigured devices and up to 80% more power (900 mA vs 500 mA) to configured devices. It also conserves power too compared to USB 2.0, which uses power when the cable isn’t being used.
Released in 2013, is called SuperSpeed USB 10 Gbps. There are three main differentiators to USB 3.1. It doubles the data rate from 5 Gbps to 10 Gbps. It will use the new, under-development Type C connector, which is far smaller and designed for use with everything from laptops to mobile phones. The Type C connector is being touted as a single-cable solution for audio, video, data, and power. It will also have a reversible plug orientation. Lastly, will have bidirectional power delivery of up to 100 watts and power auto-negotiation. It is backward compatible with USB 3.0 and 2.0, but an adapter is needed for the physical connection.
USB 3.0: 4.8 Gbps
USB 2.0: 480 Mbps
USB 1.1: 12 Mbps
5 meters (3 meters for 3.0 devices requiring higher speeds).
Not all modems shuttle data in air-conditioned, climate-controlled comfort. And modems that operate in cozy environments have absolutely no business being exposed to harsh industrial conditions or to the elements.
But... more/see it nowjust because you work in a rough-and-tumble place doesnt mean you have to sacrifice the convenience of a good modem. Instead, you should opt for an industrial modem. There are many industrial modems built for various degrees of extremity.
Survivability depends on reliability.
Sure, standard modems give you access to data in remote sites or enable you to service equipment on the plant floor—and you can do all this from the convenience of your office. However, these benefits are only possible if your modem can continue to function in its environment. And since standard modems arent built for adverse conditions, theyre not going to be reliable.
No penalties for interference.Electrical control equipment—such as motors, relays, compressors, and generators—emit electromagnetic interference (EMI) that can affect the performance and reliability of a standard telephone modem.
EMI is emitted through power lines, the RS-232 communications cable, or through the telephone line itself. The very means of data communication, cable, is often the worst enemy of the standard modems that use it.
An industrial modem, on the other hand, has filters and superior EMI immunity to protect itself and your data. If you build your electrical cabinets to UL® or CSA standards, remember that your modem must also conform to UL® standard 508.
They go to extremes.
Temperature is the biggest killer of electronic equipment in industrial environments. The heat generated by industrial equipment in sealed enclosures or where space is a premium can make the temperature as much as 50 °F higher than the surrounding environment.
So standard modems cant take the heat. But what about being outdoors in the other extreme, cold weather? Well, standard modems cant take the cold either.
If you install your equipment in remote outdoor locations, it must work on the coldest days— especially those cold days when you least want to get in the car and go to the site to repair a standard modem that froze up.
Whether theyre placed in manufacturing environments or the great outdoors, industrial modems get the data through when you need it. They go to extremes for you.
Heavy metal for all kinds of banging around.
Industrial modems are built with durable metal enclosures that protect circuitry in rough conditions and ward off signal-disrupting EMI. Plus, they feature steel-bolt flanges to anchor them. In short, industrial modems can take the physical, heavy-duty punishment thrown their way.
So where exactly can you use an industrial modem?
• Heavy industry and manufacturing
• Oil and gas fields
• Storage sites• Utility substations
• Agricultural projects
• Military facilities
• Research installations
• Water/wastewater systems
and another thing!If dedicated copper lines cant be run through industrial environments, or if the fiber optic option is cost-prohibitive, there are also wireless industrial modems that make line-of-sight connections. If theres a way to get the data through, industrial modems will get the job done.
Industrial modems remain in service for a very long time. But if you ever need a replacement that is hardware or software compatible, be assured that Black Box continues to support its products year after year—so you don’t spend your time re-engineering systems if you have to make a replacement. collapse
As todays networks expand, the demand for more bandwidth and greater distances increases. Gigabit Ethernet and the emerging 10 Gigabit Ethernet are becoming the applications of choice for current and... more/see it nowfuture networking needs. Thus, there is a renewed interest in 50-micron fiber optic cable.First used in 1976, 50-micron cable has not experienced the widespread use in North America that 62.5-micron cable has.To support campus backbones and horizontal runs over 10-Mbps Ethernet, 62.5-micron fiber, introduced in 1986, was and still is the pre-dominant fiber optic cable because it offers high bandwidth and long distance.One reason 50-micron cable did not gain widespread use was because of the light source. Both 62.5- and 50-micron fiber cable can use either LED or laser light sources. But in the 1980s and 1990s, LED light sources were common. Because 50-micron cable has a smaller aperture, the lower power of the LED light source caused a reduction in the power budget compared to 62.5-micron cablethus, the migration to 62.5-micron cable. At that time, laser light sources were not highly developed and were rarely used with 50-micron cable — and, when they were, it was mostly in research and technological applications.The cables share many characteristics. Although 50-micron fiber cable features a smaller core (the light-carrying portion of the fiber), both 50- and 62.5-micron cable use the same cladding diameter of 125 microns. Because they have the same outer diameter, theyre equally strong and are handled in the same way. In addition, both types of cable are included in the TIA/EIA 568-B.3 standards for structured cabling and connectivity.As with 62.5-micron cable, you can use 50-micron fiber in all types of applications: Ethernet, FDDI, 155-Mbps ATM, Token Ring, Fast Ethernet, and Gigabit Ethernet. It is recommended for all premise applications: backbone, horizontal, and intrabuilding connections. And it should be considered especially for any new construction and installations. IT managers looking at the possibility of 10 Gigabit Ethernet and future scalability will get what they need with 50-micron cable. collapse
One software solution to rule them all.
Wizard.NET is a professional enterprise management suite that delivers total IP device control, management, and connectivity. Black Box KVM over IP (KVMoIP) devices provide... more/see it nowthe ability to control large numbers of host computers from remote locations. When controlling larger groups of dispersed computers using numerous KVMoIP devices, the major challenge becomes one of management—retaining active control over a complex mix of devices, host computers, and registered users. Wizard.NET was developed as a common interface to help you remotely manage any number of KVMoIP devices together with all of their connected host computers and the access rights of the users.
Wizard.NET is delivered as a software solution only, and operates as a server application running on a system that can be completely separate from any of the KVMoIP devices?—?it merely requires an IP network or Internet connection. Wizard.NET uses an intuitive HTML user interface, which means that registered users can access and control it remotely using a standard Web browser. Like all Wizard KVMoIP products, Wizard.NET employs high specification security techniques to ensure that only authorized users may gain access.
Wizard.NET has two main modules, the manager and the connector. The manager module is accessible only to managers and administrators. It is where the details about all connected devices, hosts, and users are configured and stored. The connector module can be used by registered users to enable quick access to all of the targets for which they have access rights. Targets may be devices, hosts, or device groups as appropriate.
To ensure maximum security, Wizard.NET does not retain any passwords within its database for the devices that it controls. Instead, a valid password is used once only to gain access to each device during the “acquire” stage, when Wizard.NET establishes a Secure Ticket with the device. In all subsequent accesses to each device, the relevant secure ticket is used to gain access. collapse
A multi-user ServSwitch, such as the Matrix ServSwitch, enables two or more users to access different servers at the same time. So, for instance, one user can access “Server A”... more/see it nowwhile another user accesses “Server B.” This is considered a “true two-channel” architecture because two users have independent access to CPUs. It should be pointed out that multiple users cannot access the same server at the same time.
A multipoint access ServSwitch, such as the ServSwitch Duo, provides two access points for control stations but requires that both users view the same server at the same time. So, if one user is accessing “Server A” on his screen, the other user is also seeing “Server A” on his screen. If the second user switches to “Server B,“ the first user will also switch to “Server B.” Only one of these users is actually in control. The user in control stays in control until his workstation is inactive for a period of time (selectable). Then the other station can take control.
A multipoint access ServSwitch is useful when simultaneous, independent access is not required—just the ability to access CPUs from more than one place. collapse
xDSL, a term that encompasses the broad range of digital subscriber line (DSL) services, offers a low-cost, high-speed data transport option for both individuals and businesses, particularly in areas without... more/see it nowaccess to cable Internet.
xDSL provides data transmission over copper lines, using the local loop, the existing outside-plant telephone cable network that runs right to your home or office. DSL technology is relatively cheap and reliable.
SHDSL can be used effectively in enterprise LAN applications. When interconnecting sites on a corporate campus, buildings and network devices often lie beyond the reach of a standard Ethernet segment. Now you can use existing copper network infrastructure to connect remote LANS across longer distances and at higher speeds than previously thought possible.
There are various forms of DSL technologies, all of which face distance issues. The quality of the signals goes down with increasing distance. The most common will be examined here, including SHDSL, ADSL, and SDSL.
SHDSL (also known as G.SHDSL) (Single-Pair, High-Speed Digital Subscriber Line) transmits data at much higher speeds than older versions of DSL. It enables faster transmission and connections to the Internet over regular copper telephone lines than traditional voice modems can provide. Support of symmetrical data rates makes SHDSL a popular choice for businesses for PBXs, private networks, web hosting, and other services.
Ratified as a standard in 2001, SHDSL combines ADSL and SDSL features for communications over two or four (multiplexed) copper wires. SHDSL provides symmetrical upstream and downstream transmission with rates ranging from 192 kbps to 2.3 Mbps. As a departure from older DSL services designed to provide higher downstream speeds, SHDSL specified higher upstream rates, too. Higher transmission rates of 384 kbps to 4.6 Mbps can be achieved using two to four copper pairs. The distance varies according to the loop rate and noise conditions.
For higher-bandwidth symmetric links, newer G.SHDSL devices for 4-wire applications support 10-Mbps rates at distances up to 1.3 miles (2 km). Equipment for 2-wire deployments can transmit up to 5.7 Mbps at the same distance.
SHDSL (G.SHDSL) is the first DSL standard to be developed from the ground up and to be approved by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as a standard for symmetrical digital subscriber lines. It incorporates features of other DSL technologies, such as ADSL and SDS, and is specified in the ITU recommendation G.991.2.
Also approved in 2001, VDSL (Very High Bitrate DSL) as a DSL service allows for downstream/upstream rates up to 52 Mbps/16 Mbps. Extenders for local networks boast 100-Mbps/60-Mbps speeds when communicating at distances up to 500 feet (152.4 m) over a single voice-grade twisted pair. As a broadband solution, VDSL enables the simultaneous transmission of voice, data, and video, including HDTV, video on demand, and high-quality videoconferencing. Depending on the application, you can set VDSL to run symmetrically or asymmetrically.
VDSL2 (Very High Bitrate DSL 2), standardized in 2006, provides a higher bandwidth (up to 30 MHz) and higher symmetrical speeds than VDSL, enabling its use for Triple Play services (data, video, voice) at longer distances. While VDSL2 supports upstream/downstream rates similar to VDSL, at longer distances, the speeds don’t fall off as much as those transmitted with ordinary VDSL equipment.
ADSL (Asymmetric DSL) provides transmission speeds ranging from downstream/upstream rates of 9 Mbps/640 kbps over a relatively short distance to 1.544 Mbps/16 kbps as far away as 18,000 feet. The former speeds are more suited to a business, the latter more to the computing needs of a residential customer.
More bandwidth is usually required for downstream transmissions, such as receiving data from a host computer or downloading multimedia files. ADSLs asymmetrical nature provides more than sufficient bandwidth for these applications.
The lopsided nature of ADSL is what makes it most likely to be used for high-speed Internet access. And the various speed/distance options available within this range are one more point in ADSLs favor. Like most DSL services standardized by ANSI as T1.413, ADSL enables you to lease and pay for only the bandwidth you need.
SDSL (Symmetric DSL) represents the two-wire version of HDSL—which is actually symmetric DSL, albeit a four-wire version. SDSL is also known within ANSI as HDSL2.
Essentially offering the same capabilities as HDSL, SDSL offers T1 rates (1.544 Mbps) at ranges up to 10,000 feet and is primarily designed for business applications.
Bringing fiber to the desktop is a great way to provide your users with increased bandwidth. The first step in achieving this goal is to provide an inexpensive fiber optic... more/see it nowsystem that is intuitive to the end user, easy to terminate in the field, and widely supported by equipment manufacturers. MT-RJ could be the answer to all these requirements.A collaborative effort by leading fiber optic manufacturers, MT-RJ has an intuitive RJ latch that users recognize from copper Category 5 patch cords and traditional telephone cords, and it operates in the same way. The plug and jack are also similar in size to traditional RJ-type connectors. Field installation, a common concern, is easier because of MT-RJs no-polish, no-epoxy, quick-termination design. MT-RJ is available in single- or multimode configurations and is backwards compatible for integration into existing networks. Since MT-RJ has duplex polarity, you dont have to worry about the polarity reversal that happens with traditional ST type connectors. The TIA/EIA recently voted to accept MT-RJ, indicating wide acceptance of the new design and possible future inclusion in the TIA/EIA 568A standard.Black Box, the name you trust to keep you up with the latest industry developments, supports this new technology. collapse
There are three main types of digital video interfaces: P&D, DFP, and DVI. P&D (Plug & Display, also known as EVC), the earliest of these technologies, supports both digital and... more/see it nowanalog RGB connections and is now used primarily on projectors. DFP (Digital Flat-Panel Port) was the first digital-only connector on displays and graphics cards; it’s being phased out.
There are different types of DVI connectors: DVI-D, DVI-I, DVI-A, DFP, and EVC.
DVI-D is a digital-only connector. DVI-I supports both digital and analog RGB connections. Some manufacturers are offering the DVI-I connector type on their products instead of separate analog and digital connectors. DVI-A is used to carry an analog DVI signal to a VGA device, such as a display. DFP, like DVI-D, was an early digital-only connector used on some displays; it’s being phased out. EVC (also known as P&D) is similar to DVI-I only it’s slightly larger in size. It also handles digital and analog connections, and it’s used primarily on projectors.
All these standards are based on transition-minimized differential signaling (TMDS). In a typical single-line digital signal, voltage is raised to a high level and decreased to a low level to create transitions that convey data. TMDS uses a pair of signal wires to minimize the number of transitions needed to transfer data. When one wire goes to a high-voltage state, the other goes to a low-voltage state. This balance increases the data-transfer rate and improves accuracy. collapse
10-Gigabit Ethernet (10-GbE), ratified in June 2002, is a logical extension of previous Ethernet versions. 10-GbE was designed to make the transition from LANs to Wide Area Networks (WANs) and... more/see it nowMetropolitan Area Networks (MANs). It offers a cost-effective migration for high-performance and long-haul transmissions at up to 40 kilometers. Its most common application now is as a backbone for high-speed LANs, server farms, and campuses.
10-GbE supports existing Ethernet technologies. It uses the same layers (MAC, PHY, and PMD), and the same frame sizes and formats. But the IEEE 802.3ae spec defines two sets of physical interfaces: LAN (LAN PHY) and WAN (WAN PHY). The most notable difference between 10-GbE and previous Ethernets is that 10-GbE operates in full-duplex only and specifies fiber optic media.
At a glanceGigabit vs. 10-Gigabit Ethernet
• CSMA/CD + full-duplex
• Leveraged Fibre Channel PMDs
• Reused 8B/10B coding
• Optical/copper media
• Support LAN to 5 km
• Carrier extension
• Full-duplex only
• New optical PMDs
• New coding scheme 64B/66B
• Optical (developing copper)
• Support LAN to 40 km
• Throttle MAC speed for WAN
• Use SONET/SDH as Layer 1 transport
The alphabetical coding for 10-GbE is as follows:
S = 850 nm
L = 1310 nm
E = 1550 nm
X = 8B/10B signal encoding
R = 66B encoding
W = WIS interface (for use with SONET).
10GBASE-SR — Distance: 300 m; Wavelength: 850 nm; Cable: Multimode
10GBASE-SW — Distance: 300 m; Wavelength: 850 nm; Cable: Multimode
10GBASE-LR — Distance: 10 km; Wavelength: 1310 nm; Cable: Single-Mode
10GBASE-LW — Distance: 10 km; Wavelength: 1310 nm; Cable: Single-Mode
10GBASE-LX4 — Distance: Multimode 300 m, Single-Mode 10 km; Wavelength: Multimode 1310 nm, Single-Mode WWDM; Cable: Multimode or Single-Mode
10GBASE-ER — Distance: 40 km; Wavelength: 1550 nm; Cable: Single-Mode
10GBASE-EW — Distance: 40 km; Wavelength: 550 nm; Cable: Single-Mode
10GBASE-CX4* — Distance: 15 m; Wavelength: Cable: 4 x Twinax
10GBASE-T* — Distance: 25–100 m; Wavelength: Cable: Twisted Pair
* Proposed for copper. collapse
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