Black Box Explains...The MPO connector.
MPO stands for multifiber push-on connector. It is a connector for multifiber ribbon cable that generally contains 6, 8, 12, or 24 fibers. It is defined by IEC-61754-7 and EIA/TIA-604-5-D,... more/see it nowalso known as FOCIS 5. The MPO connector, combined with lightweight ribbon cable, represents a huge technological advance over traditional multifiber cables. It’s lighter, more compact, easier to install, and less expensive.
A single MPO connector replaces up to 24 standard connectors. This very high density means lower space requirements and reduced costs for your installation. Traditional, tight-buffered multifiber cable needs to have each fiber individually terminated by a skilled technician. But MPO fiber optic cable, which carries multiple fibers, comes preterminated.
Just plug it in and you’re ready to go.BR>
MPO connectors feature an intuitive push-pull latching sleeve mechanism with an audible click upon connection and are easy to use. The MPO connector is similar to the MT-RJ connector. The MPO’s ferrule surface of 2.45 x 6.40 mm is slightly bigger than the MT-RJ’s, and the latching mechanism works with a sliding sleeve latch rather than a push-in latch.
The MPO connector can be either male or female. You can tell the male connector by the two alignment pins protruding from the end of the ferrule. The MPO ferrule is generally flat for multimode applications and angled for single-mode applications.
MPO connectors are also commonly called MTP® connectors, which is a registered trademark of US Conec. The MTP connector is an MPO connector
Black Box Explains... SNMP.
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) management is the standard for LAN management, particularly in mission-critical applications. The standard is controlled by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It was designed... more/see it nowto manage network configuration, performance, faults, accounting, and security.
An SNMP agent must be present at the device level (a router or a hub, for example), either built into the unit or as a proxy agent, and is accessed through a remote terminal. SNMP does not follow a polling protocol. It waits to receive data from the remote device or sends data based on operator commands.
By using one common set of standards, SNMP enables network administrators to manage, monitor, and control their SNMP-compliant network equipment with one management system and from one management station. If a network device goes down, it|s possible to both pinpoint and troubleshoot the problem more efficiently. And a network administrator isnt limited to equipment from just one vendor when using an SNMP program. collapse
Black Box Explains: M1 connectors.
In 2001, the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) approved the M1 Display Interface System for digital displays. The M1 system is a versatile and convenient system designed for computer displays,... more/see it nowspecifically digital projectors. M1 supports both analog and digital signals.
M1 is basically a modified DVI connector that can support DVI, VGA, USB and IEEE-1394 signals. The single connector replaces multiple connectors on projectors. An M1 cable can also be used to power accessories, such as interface cards for PDAs.
There are three primary types of M1 connectors:
–M1-DA (digital and analog). This is the most common connector, and it supports VGA, USB and DVI signals.
–M1-D (digital) supports DVI signals.
–M1-A (analog) supports VGA signals.
The M1 standard does not cover any signal specifications or detailed connector specifications. collapse
Black Box Explains... Fibre Channel Technology.
What is Fibre Channel?
Fibre Channel is a set of communication standards designed to provide high-speed data transfer over a duplex, serial interface. Its an open standard that supports multiple protocols... more/see it nowincluding higher-level protocols, such as FDDI, SCSI, HIPPI, and IPI, to manage data transfer.
Although it operates at a range of 133 Mbps to 4 Gbps, Fibre Channel is most commonly used at speeds of 1 or 2 Gbps. A working standards group recently announced that 10-Gbps speeds are expected in soon.
Why is it called Fibre Channel?
Originally, Fibre Channel was designed to support only fiber. When copper was added, the International Standards Organization (ISO) task force changed the spelling of fiber to fibre instead of renaming the technology.
Fibre Channel history.
Fibre Channel was first developed in 1988, and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) formed a committee in 1989. To ensure interoperability, IBM®, Hewlett-Packard®, and Sun Microsystems® formed the FCSI (Fibre Channel Systems Initiative), a temporary organization, in 1992. FCSI later dissolved, and development was handed over to the FCA (Fibre Channel Association) in 1994. ANSI accepted Fibre Channel as a standard in 1994.
The best of both worlds.
This hardware-based standard combines the best of both channel and network communication methods into one I/O interface. It takes advantage of hardware-intensive, quicker point-to-point channel links that offer low overhead, such as SCSI bus technology, as well as the broad connectivity and long-distance benefits of software-intensive network technology.
Where Fibre Channel is used.
Fibre Channel is used to transfer large amounts of data quickly between supercomputers, mainframes, workstations, desktop computers, storage devices, displays, and other peripherals.
Fibre Channel offers reliability, scalability, congestion-free data flow, Gigabit bandwidth, compatibility with multiple topologies and protocols, flow control, self management, hot pluggability, speed, cost efficiency, loop resiliency, and distance. This makes it ideal for large data operations such as Internet/intranets, data warehousing, networked storage, integrated audio/video, real-time computing, on-line services, and imaging.
The most popular application for this technology right now is Storage Area Networks (SANs). Independent methods of centralized storage management within a SAN (e.g., RAID, tape backup or library, CD-ROM library) run more efficiently with a Fibre Channel backbone.
Fibre Channel topologies.
Fibre Channel can be connected by three methods. In all cases, the topology of the network is transparent to the attached devices.
Point to point is the simplest topology, which uses simple bidirectional links between two connected devices.
Arbitrated loop is the most common topology and the most complex. It is distributed, connecting up to 126 devices across shared media, and it offers shared bandwidth. Two ports on the loop establish a point-to-point, full-duplex connection through arbitration among all ports.
The cross-point or fabric-switched topology uses 24-bit addressing to connect up to 2 (to the 24th) devices in a cross-point switched configuration. This enables many devices to communicate at the same time and does not require shared media.
Fibre Channel layers.
Fibre Channel protocol is divided into five hierarchical layers: The three bottom layers, FC-0FC-2, define the physical transmission standard. Layers FC-3 and FC-4 address interfaces with other network protocols.
FC-0: Media and interface layer that defines the physical link.
FC-1: Transmission encode/decode layer. Information is encoded 8 bits at a time into a 10-bit transmission character (8B/10B from IBM).
FC-2: Signaling protocol layer that serves as the transport mechanism performing basic signaling and framing. FC-2 includes the following classes of service:
• Class 1 provides dedicated connections. Intermix is an optional type of Class 1 service in which Class 1 frames are guaranteed a special amount of bandwidth.
• Class 2 is a frame-switched, connectionless service, also known as multiplex. It guarantees delivery and confirms receipt of traffic.
• Class 3 is a one-to-many, connectionless, frame-switched service. Its similar to Class 2 except it uses buffer-to-buffer flow control and does not confirm frame delivery.
FC-3: Common-services layer that provides common services required for advanced features such as striping, hunt groups, and multicast.
FC-4: Upper layer for protocol mapping of network and channel data transmitting concurrently over the same physical interface.
Fibre Channel media.
Fibre Channel runs at up to 1 Gbps over copper or fiber, but for higher speeds, fiber is required. Copper-wire cable can be video coax, miniature coax, or, most commonly, shielded twisted pair with a DB9 or HSSDC connector. Fiber choices include 62.5- or 50-µm multimode and 7- or 9-µm single-mode fiber, all with an SC connector.
Other Fibre Channel equipment includes disk enclosures, drivers, extenders, hubs, interface converters, host bus adapters, routers, switches, and SCSI bridges. collapse
Black Box Explains... Standard and ThinNet Ethernet cabling.
The Ethernet standard supports 10-, 100-, and 1000-Mbps speeds. It supports both half- and full-duplex configurations over twisted-pair and fiber cable, as well as half-duplex over coax cable.
However, the Thick... more/see it nowand ThinNet Ethernet standards support only 10-Mbps speeds.
Standard (Thick) Ethernet (10BASE5)
• Uses “Thick” coax cable with N-type connectors for a backbone and a transceiver cable with 15-pin connectors from the transceiver to the network interface card.
• The maximum number of segments is five, but only three can have computers attached. The others are for network extension.
• The maximum length of one segment is 500 meters.
• The maximum total length of all segments is 2500 meters.
• The maximum length of one transceiver cable is 50 meters.
• The minimum distance between transceivers is 2.5 meters.
• No more than 100 transceiver connections per segment are allowed. A repeater counts as a station for both segments.
Thin Ethernet (ThinNet) (10BASE2)
• Uses “Thin” coax cable (RG-58A/U or RG-58C/U).
• The maximum length of one segment is 185 meters.
• The maximum number of segments is five.
• The maximum total length of all segments is 925 meters.
• The minimum distance between T-connectors is 0.5 meters.
• No more than 30 connections per segment are allowed.
• T-connectors must be plugged directly into each device. collapse
Black Box Explains... TEMPEST standard and Common Criteria (EAL4+)
Common Criteria (EAL4+) defines a common set of tests regarding the process of the design, testing, verification, and shipping of new security products. Common Criteria enables customers to assess a... more/see it nowlevel of trust in how a product has been designed, tested, built, and shipped.
TEMPEST testing, while classified, is regarded as a process that assesses the threat of data linking by various covert electromagnetic eavesdropping mechanisms. The TEMPEST designation is often required by military organizations. TEMPEST, as a security standard, pertains to technical security countermeasures, standards, and instrumentation that prevent or minimize the exploitation of vulnerable data
communications equipment by technical surveillance or
Both testing standards are important, they just test for different things.
TEMPEST-Secure KVM Switches
For 2 or 4 ports, with USB, and DVI-I or VGA the ServSwitch Secure KVM Switch with USB (page 382) provides control and separation of up to four PCs connected to secure and unsecure networks through just one keyboard, monitor, and mouse.
High port-to-port electrical isolation, which facilitates data separation (RED/BLACK).
NSA tested and TEMPEST approved for and by the U.S. Air Force.
The low radiated emissions profile meets the appropriate national requirements for conducted/radiated electromagnetic emissions.
Switches are permanently hard wired, preventing access from one CPU to the others or access from one network to others.
External tamper-evident seals make it easy to spot attempted tampering.
Channel-to-channel 60-dB crosstalk isolation protects against signal snooping, so software tools and applications cannot be used to access any connected computer from another connected computer.
Users can safely switch among as many as four computers operating at different classification levels.
Common Criteria Evaluation Assurance to Level 4+
A newly developed switch, the ServSwitch Secure with USB and DVI, or VGA, or VGA and a Card Reader (pages 384–385), is being evaluated for Common Criteria Evaluation Assurance to Level 4+ (EAL4+). Common Criteria is an international standardized process for information technology security evaluation, validation, and certification. The Common Criteria scheme is supported by the National Security Agency through the National Information Assurance Program (NIAP).
The ServSwitch Secure KVM Switch with USB surpasses the security profiles of most other KVM switches. Along with the tamper-evident seals and other security features already mentioned, ServSwitch Secure KVM Switch with USB models feature these security measures:
The flow of keyboard and mouse data is unidirectional, so it’s not possible for the computer to send data along the keyboard and mouse signaling channels.
Keyboard and mouse devices can only be enumerated at the keyboard and mouse ports. Any other USB peripherals connected to these ports will be prohibited from operating, preventing, for example, a USB thumb drive from uploading or downloading unauthorized data.
At each channel switchover, the USB host controller circuit, which controls shared peripherals, erases its entire RAM. This prevents residual data from remaining in the channel after a channel change and being transferred to another computer.
Every time the channel is changed, shared USB peripherals are powered down, reset, and re-enumerated.
Every time the channel is changed, the USB host controller is also powered down and reset, further ensuring no transfer of residual data.
Dedicated DDC bus and EDID memory emulation at each port prevent the shared monitor link from being used as a covert attack channel.
With only one selection button per channel, the ServSwitch Secure models enable direct and unambiguous channel selection.
Hotkey and mouse switching are excluded, preventing remote control of the switch.
Ports are powered through the computer’s USB ports, while the shared keyboard, mouse, and monitor are powered by the switch’s power supply. The lack of a common power supply minimizes electronic signaling.
The switches with card readers have additional features, including active authentication verification and active tamper detection. collapse
Black Box Explains...Why media converters need SNMP.
The number of Ethernet switches and fiber optic segments being added to Ethernet networks keeps increasing. And as long as most Ethernet switches are only available with 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX... more/see it nowinterfaces, media converters will remain in demand.
Until now, a failure on the network could go unnoticed. Once a failure was detected, it could take a long time to isolate it, especially if a technician had to be sent to the site. But media converters with SNMP eliminate some of the guesswork.
With SNMP, the IS manager can detect a failure, isolate it to a specific port, and determine what hardware is required to repair it. A technician can then be sent directly to the right place to fix faulty hardware or repair a broken cable.
SNMP enables you to set up alarms or traps when a link is down. You can turn features on and off from a central terminal, so theres no need to leave your desk. You can also monitor power supplies and replace them without interrupting service. SNMP management reduces the time and money it takes to get your network up and running again. The users on your network will notice—and appreciate—the improved service and reliability. collapse
Black Box Explains...Giga, Giga2, and Giga Plus—what you need to know.
Our Giga, Giga2, and Giga Plus and systems feature jacks, wallplates, surface-mount boxes, and other accessories. Components of each system are designed to work together. And they all work with... more/see it nowour GigaTrue® CAT6 and GigaBase® CAT5e cable. Here are the differences between the systems so you can make the right decision when choosing hardware.
Giga products are our original line of jacks, wallplates, etc.
Giga products, such as jacks and wallplates, are designed to work with Giga products.
To meet the needs of existing Giga systems, we continue to carry Giga products.
Giga2 products are a newer line. They offer the same quality but are priced economically.
Giga2 products, such as jacks and wallplates, are designed to work with Giga2 products.
Giga Plus is our newest line and is entirely made in the U.S. So if you need to buy American-made products, choose this line.
Giga Plus products are designed to work with Giga2 products.
Black Box Explains...Alien crosstalk.
Alien crosstalk (ANEXT) is a critical and unique measurement in 10-GbE systems. Crosstalk, used in 10/100/1000BASE-T systems, measures the mixing of signals between wire pairs within a cable. Alien Crosstalk,... more/see it nowin 10-GbE systems, is the measurement of the signal coupling between wire pairs in
different, adjacent cables.
The amount of ANEXT depends on a number of factors, including the promixity of adjacent cables and connectors, the cable length, cable twist density, and EMI. Patch panels and connecting hardware are also affected by Alien Crosstalk.
With Alien Crosstalk, the affected cable is called the disturbed or victim cable. The surrounding cables are the disturber cables.
Black Box Explains...The difference between the SurgeArrest and power strips.
It says UL® listed, so it must be okay, right? Don’t be fooled. The $5.99 surge suppressor you picked up for your home PC may be nothing more than a... more/see it nowmultiple outlet extension cord.
UL® listed means that a product has been submitted to Underwriter’s Laboratories® for safety testing in certain categories. The strip protector you just bought is probably listed in the extension cord category. It won’t stop harmful surges from destroying equipment data.
The UL® listing for surge suppressors is UL® 1449. APC® SurgeArrest® products received the best UL® 1449 rating. Some vendors rate surge protection on the basis of joule energy. But let-through should be compared.
Basically, let-through is a measure of how much of a spike or surge each protector will let though to your electronic equipment. The lower the let-through rating, the better the suppression. And the SurgeArrest is guaranteed forever—even if it takes a catastrophic hit. It may be the last surge protector you buy. collapse