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Black Box Explains...Straight-pinned and crossover cable.

Straight-pinned cable has the most common type of pinning. The send and receive pairs are wired straight-through on either end of the cable.

Crossover cable is generally used for peer-to-peer connections.... more/see it nowThe send and receive pairs are crossed between Connector A to Connector B on either end of the cable. collapse


Black Box Explains…Remote monitoring.

Beyond virus protection.
It has become almost automatic to protect your data center by backing up your servers, installing firewalls and virus protection, and keeping the protection up-to-date.

But what about... more/see it nowmore tangible threats? Do you have hot spots in your racks? If the cooling system shuts down, how will you know when temperatures climb out of control? Are you alerted to humidity changes or water leaks that threaten your equipment?

Planning for the unexpected is a critical task because there are more systems performing mission-critical functions than ever before. These systems are often deployed without the proper environmental infrastructure to support them. Equipment density is increasing constantly, which is creating more stress on ventilation and power.

The top three IT risks:
1. Environmental disruption.
The number one cause of downtime for remote locations, environmental problems go beyond fires and floods and affect as much as 30% of a company’s mission-critical infrastructure. Cooling and power are key points of exposure and increase as equipment density does.

2. Unnecessary risk.
When systems are housed in less-than-optimal settings, or are in remote and unsupervised locations, any error causes downtime. Yet, it’s not practical to have someone babysitting the servers.

3. Sabotage.
Regardless of the probability, terrorism is now something each of us must plan for. Your systems can also be brought down from within if the proper security safeguards are not in place.

What’s an environmental monitoring system?
Environmental monitoring products enable you to actively monitor the conditions in your rack, server room, data center, or anywhere else you need to protect critical assets. Conditions monitored include extreme temperatures, humidity, power spikes and surges, water leaks, smoke, and chemical materials. With proper environmental monitoring, you’re alerted to any conditions that could have an adverse effect on your mission-critical equipment. These products can also alert you to potential damage from human error, hacking, or prying fingers.

Environmental monitors consist of three main elements: a base unit, probes or sensors, and network connectivity and integration. The base units may contain one or more built-in sensors, as well as ports for hooking up external probes. Additionally, they include an Ethernet port and have software for remote configuration and graphing. This software may also work with existing network management software, such as SNMP systems.

Measurement.
An environmental monitoring appliance displays the values measured by the attached probes, e.g. temperature, humidity, airflow, status of dry contact, door, motion detector, and other sensors.

Data collecting and graphing.
Measurements are periodically stored in the internal memory or external storage media and displayed as graphs.

Alerting.
When the measured value exceeds the predefined threshold, it triggers an alert: a blinking LED on the front panel, an audible alarm, SNMP trap, e-mail, etc. The environmental monitoring appliance can also activate an external alarm system like a siren or strobe light.

Benefits of environmental monitoring:

  • Reduced downtime—When things go wrong, you’re the first to know. Minimize downtime by being alerted about conditions that cause damage to servers and other network devices.
  • Increased profits—Environmental monitoring systems are easy to implement. Also, they help you cut replacement equipment costs and redistribute your workforce more effectively.
  • Increased employee satisfaction—With built-in notification features like e-mail, SMS, and SNMP traps, a remote monitoring system enables employees to better manage their work.

  • Applications:
    Envornmental and security monitoring systems can be used for a variety of applications, including:
  • Data center monitoring
  • Computer room monitoring
  • Rackmount industrial equipment
  • Telecommunications
  • UPS/battery backup
  • Educational institutions
  • Food and beverage applications
  • Buildings/warehouses
  • Air conditioner/refrigerants/freezer monitoring
  • Greenhouses
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    Black Box Explains...What to look for in a channel solution.


    Channel solution. You hear the term a lot these days to describe complete copper or fiber cabling systems. But what exactly is a channel solution and what are its benefits?... more/see it now

    A definition.
    A channel solution is a cabling system from the data center to the desktop where every cable, jack, and patch panel is designed to work together and give you consistent end-to-end performance when compared with the EIA/TIA requirements.

    Its benefits.
    A channel solution is beneficial because you have some assurance that your cabling components will perform as specified. Without that assurance, one part may not be doing its job, so your entire system may not be performing up to standard, which is a problem — especially if you rely on bandwidth-heavy links for video and voice.

    What to look for.
    There are a lot of channel solutions advertised on the Internet and elsewhere. So what exactly should you be looking for?

    For one, make sure it’s a fully tested, guaranteed channel solution. The facts show an inferior cabling system can cause up to 70 percent of network downtime — even though it usually represents only 5 percent of an initial network investment. So don’t risk widespread failure by skimping on a system that doesn’t offer guaranteed channel performance. You need to make sure the products are engineered to meet or go beyond the key measurements for CAT5e or CAT6 performance.

    And, sure, they may be designed to work together, but does the supplier absolutely guarantee how well they perform as part of a channel — end to end? Don’t just rely on what the supplier says. They may claim their products meet CAT5e or CAT6 requirements, but the proof is in the performance. Start by asking if the channel solution is independently tested and certified by a reputable third party. There are a lot of suppliers out there who don’t have the trademarked ETL approval logo, for example.

    What ETL Verified means.
    The ETL logo certifies that a channel solution has been found to be in compliance with recognized standards. To ensure consistent top quality, Black Box participates in independent third-party testing by InterTek Testing Services/ETL Semko, Inc. Once a quarter, an Intertek inspector visits Black Box and randomly selects cable and cabling products for testing.

    The GigaTrue® CAT6 and GigaBase® CAT5e Solid Bulk Cable are ETL Verified at the component level to verify that they conform to the applicable industry standards. The GigaTrue® CAT6 and GigaBase® CAT5e Channels, consisting of bulk cable, patch cable, jacks, patch panels, and wiring blocks, are tested and verified according to industry standards in a LAN environment under InterTek’s Cabling System Channel Verification Program. For the latest test results, contact our FREE Tech Support. collapse


    Black Box Explains... Bridges

    If you work with legacy networks, you have doubtlessly encountered bridges. Bridges perform the same function as today’s switches in that they connect multiple network segments to create one homogenous... more/see it nownetwork, while keeping each segment isolated from the others.

    Bridges operate on MAC-layer addresses and are protocol independent, so they transfer data between workstations without understanding the protocol. Since they don’t have to understand the protocol, they require little or no configuration.

    Once you connect the bridge to the network, it automatically learns the addresses of all connected nodes and then creates an internal address table of this information.

    When the bridge sees a packet, it checks the packet’s destination address against its internal list. If the address indicates the packet needs to be forwarded, the bridge passes the packet to the appropriate segment. If a bridge doesn’t know where a packet belongs—for example, when a station is first powered on—it passes on the packet.

    Bridges can also distinguish between local data and remote data, so data traveling from one workstation to another in the same network doesn’t have to cross the bridge.

    Although they are no longer in general use, Black Box stocks bridges for use as replacement parts in legacy networks. Replacing bridges with bridges rather than switches is often preferable because bridges are generally available with the BNC and AUI interfaces often found in older networks. Also, some bridges are able to link to other protocols such as RS-530 and X.21, enabling you to use these media to establish Ethernet network connections. collapse


    Black Box Explains...Digital Visual Interface (DVI) and other digital display interfaces.

    There are three main types of digital video interfaces: P&D, DFP, and DVI. P&D (Plug & Display, also known as EVC), the earliest of these technologies, supports both digital and... more/see it nowanalog RGB connections and is now used primarily on projectors. DFP (Digital Flat-Panel Port) was the first digital-only connector on displays and graphics cards; it’s being phased out.

    There are different types of DVI connectors: DVI-D, DVI-I, DVI-A, DFP, and EVC.

    DVI-D is a digital-only connector. DVI-I supports both digital and analog RGB connections. Some manufacturers are offering the DVI-I connector type on their products instead of separate analog and digital connectors. DVI-A is used to carry an analog DVI signal to a VGA device, such as a display. DFP, like DVI-D, was an early digital-only connector used on some displays; it’s being phased out. EVC (also known as P&D) is similar to DVI-I only it’s slightly larger in size. It also handles digital and analog connections, and it’s used primarily on projectors.

    All these standards are based on transition-minimized differential signaling (TMDS). In a typical single-line digital signal, voltage is raised to a high level and decreased to a low level to create transitions that convey data. TMDS uses a pair of signal wires to minimize the number of transitions needed to transfer data. When one wire goes to a high-voltage state, the other goes to a low-voltage state. This balance increases the data-transfer rate and improves accuracy. collapse


    Black Box Explains...Digital Visual Interface (DVI) connectors.

    The DVI (Digital Video Interface) technology is the standard digital transfer medium for computers while the HDMI interface is more commonly found on HDTVs, and other high-end displays.

    The Digital... more/see it nowVisual Interface (DVI) standard is based on transition-minimized differential signaling (TMDS). There are two DVI formats: Single-Link and Dual-Link. Single-link cables use one TMDS-165 MHz transmitter and dual-link cables use two. The dual-link cables double the power of the transmission. A single-link cable can transmit a resolution ?of 1920 x 1200 vs. 2560 x 1600 for a dual-link cable.

    There are several types of connectors: ?DVI-D, DVI-I, DVI-A, DFP, and EVC.

    • DVI-D is a digital-only connector for use between a digital video source and monitors. DVI-D eliminates analog conversion and improves the display. It can be used when one or both connections are DVI-D.
    • DVI-I (integrated) supports both digital and analog RGB connections. It can transmit either a digital-to-digital signals or an analog-to-analog signal. It is used by some manufacturers on products instead of separate analog and digital connectors. If both connectors are DVI-I, you can use any DVI cable, but a DVI-I is recommended.
    • DVI-A (analog) is used to carry an DVI signal from a computer to an analog VGA device, such as a display. If one or both of your connections are DVI-A, use this cable. ?If one connection is DVI and the other is ?VGA HD15, you need a cable or adapter ?with both connectors.
    • DFP (Digital Flat Panel) was an early digital-only connector used on some displays.
    • EVC (also known as P&D, for ?Plug & Display), another older connector, handles digital and analog connections.
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    Black Box Explains...Speaker sound quality.

    A human with keen hearing can hear sounds within a range of about 20 Hz to 20 KHz. But most human speech is centered in the 1000 Hz range, so... more/see it nowmost old-fashioned analog telephone networks provided audio bandwidth only in this range. This range transmits most voice information but can fail to register voice subtleties and inflections.

    Because these older analog phone systems had such a narrow bandwidth, headset manufacturers built their products to operate only in those particular frequencies.

    When digital networks and fiber optic connections came into use, however, they provided a much wider bandwidth for voice transmission. This led to a corresponding increase in headset sound quality.

    Today, quality headsets take advantage of increased network bandwidth and typically can reproduce sounds in the 300 Hz to 3500 Hz range. This makes voices far easier to understand and enables you to pick up all the nuances and inflections of your caller’s voice. collapse


    Black Box Explains...FDDI

    Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) is a networking standard for operating at speeds of up to 100 Mbps. The standard FDDI network is set up in a ring topology with... more/see it nowtwo rings that transmit signals in opposite directions to a series of nodes. FDDI accommodates up to 500 nodes per dual-ring network with spacing up to 2 kilometers between adjacent nodes. FDDI uses the same token-passing scheme as the IEEE 802.5 Token Ring network to control transmission around the loop. collapse


    Black Box Explains...Modem eliminators.

    Understanding the process of elimination.
    If your office environment has sync equipment, and if that equipment is also used for local data communications, you should consider replacing those modems with cost-effective... more/see it nowand versatile modem eliminators.

    What does a modem eliminator do?
    One modem eliminator can connect a local terminal and computer port in lieu of the pair of modems that they would normally connect to. Plus, a modem eliminator enables DCE-to-DTE data and control-signal connections that are not easily achieved by standard cables or connectors in a sync environment.

    Basically, a modem eliminator simulates a sync data link. It does this two ways. First, it provides clocking, which is mandatory for sync devices to communicate. Second, it provides the handshaking that DCEs do.

    Why should you use a modem eliminator?
    One—if you have two sync DTEs in the same room or close to each other, you will need a modem eliminator.

    Two—if you have a network with routers, you just found the perfect equipment tester.

    A modem eliminator can enable in-house bench testing of routers or existing equipment. There’s no need to place routers all over your network only to find out they don’t work once you test the LAN. A modem eliminator tells you what equipment passes your tests before you install.

    Three—a modem eliminator makes good economic sense. One does the job of two modems—and it does the job better. You get a high return on your investment. collapse


    Black Box Explains...Low-profile PCI serial adapters.

    Ever notice that newer computers are getting smaller and slimmer? That means regular PCI boards won’t fit into these computers’ low-profile PCI slots. But because miniaturization is the rage in... more/see it nowall matters of technology, it was only a short matter of time before low-profile PCI serial adapters became available—and Black Box has them.

    Low-profile cards meet the PCI Special Interest Group (PCI-SIG) Low-Profile PCI specifications, the form-factor definitions for input/output expansion. Low-Profile PCI has two card lengths defined for 32-bit bus cards: MD1 and MD2. MD1 is the smaller of the two, with cards no larger than 4.721 inches long and 2.536 inches high. MD2 cards are a maximum of 6.6 inches long and 2.536 inches high.

    BLACK BOX® Low-Profile Serial PCI cards comply with the MD1 low-profile specification and are compatible with the universal bus. Universal bus is a PCI card that can operate in either a 5-V or 3.3-V signaling level system. collapse

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