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Black Box Explains...Alien crosstalk.

Alien crosstalk (ANEXT) is a critical and unique measurement in 10-GbE systems. Crosstalk, used in 10/100/1000BASE-T systems, measures the mixing of signals between wire pairs within a cable. Alien Crosstalk,... more/see it nowin 10-GbE systems, is the measurement of the signal coupling between wire pairs in different, adjacent cables.

The amount of ANEXT depends on a number of factors, including the promixity of adjacent cables and connectors, the cable length, cable twist density, and EMI. Patch panels and connecting hardware are also affected by Alien Crosstalk.

With Alien Crosstalk, the affected cable is called the disturbed or victim cable. The surrounding cables are the disturber cables. collapse


DisplayPort cable.

DisplayPort is a digital video interface that was designed by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) in 2006 and has been produced since 2008. It’s incredibly versatile, with the capability... more/see it nowto deliver digital video, audio, bidirectional communications, and accessory power over a single connector.

DisplayPort cables are targeted at the computer world rather than at consumer electronics. DisplayPort is used to connect digital audio/video computers, displays, monitors, projectors, HDTVs, splitters, extenders, and other devices that support resolutions up to 4K and beyond. Unlike HDMI, however, DisplayPort is an open standard with no royalties.

With the proper adapters, DisplayPort cable can carry DVI and HDMI signals, although this doesn’t work the other way around—DVI and HDMI cable can’t carry DisplayPort. Because DisplayPort can provide power to attached devices, DisplayPort to HDMI or DVI adapters don’t need a separate power supply.

DisplayPort supports cable lengths of up to 15 meters with maximum resolutions at cable lengths up to 3 meters. Bidirectional signaling enables DisplayPort to both send and receive data from an attached device.

DisplayPort v1.1: 10.8 Gbps over a 2-meter cable.

DisplayPort v1.2: 21.6 Gbps (4K). DisplayPort v1.2 also enables you to daisychain up to four monitors with only a single output cable. It also offers the future promise of DisplayPort Hubs that would operate much like a USB hub.

DisplayPort v1.3: 2.4 Gbps. (5K)

The standard DisplayPort connector is very compact and features latches that don’t add to the connector’s size. Unlike HDMI, a DisplayPort connector is easily lockable with a pinch-down locking hood, so it can't be easily dislodged. However, a quick squeeze of the connector releases the latch.

The Mini DisplayPort (MiniDP or mDP) is a miniatured version of the DisplayPort interface. It carries both digital and analog computer video and audio signals. Apple® introduced the Mini DisplayPort connector in 2008 and it is now on all new Mac® computers. It is also being used in newer PC notebooks. This small form factor connector fully supports the VESA DisplayPort protocol. It is particularly useful on systems where space is at a premium, such as laptops, or to support multiple connectors on reduced height add-in cards.

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Black Box Explains...Connecting peripherals with USB.

Before Universal Serial Bus (USB), adding peripherals required skill. You had to open your computer to install a card, set DIP switches, and make IRQ settings. Now you can connect... more/see it nowdigital joysticks, scanners, speakers, cameras, or PC telephones to your computer instantly. With USB, anyone can make the connection because everything is automatic!

Because USB connections are hot-swappable, you can attach or remove peripherals without shutting down your computer. Also, USB hubs have additional ports that enable you to daisychain multiple devices together. More than 800 leading PC, peripheral, and software manufacturers support USB. collapse


Black Box Explains...Digital Visual Interface (DVI) connectors.

DVI (Digital Video Interface) is the standard digital interface for transmitting uncompressed high-definition, 1080p video between PCs and monitors and other computer equipment. Because DVI accommodates both analog and digital... more/see it nowinterfaces with a single connector, it is also compatible with the VGA interface. DVI differs from HDMI in that HDMI is more commonly found on HDTVs and consumer electronics.

The DVI standard is based on transition-minimized differential signaling (TMDS). There are two DVI formats: Single-Link and Dual-Link. Single-link cables use one TMDS-165 MHz transmitter and dual-link cables use two. The dual-link cables double the power of the transmission. A single-link cable can transmit a resolution ?of 1920 x 1200 vs. 2560 x 1600 for a dual-link cable.

There are several types of connectors: DVI-D, DVI-I, DVI-A, DFP, and EVC.

DVI-D (digital). This digital-only interface provides a high-quality image and fast transfer rates between a digital video source and monitors. It eliminates analog conversion and improves the display. It can be used when one or both connections are DVI-D.

DVI-I (integrated). This interface supports both digital and analog RGB connections. It can transmit either a digital-to-digital signal or an analog-to-analog signal. It can be used with adapters to enable connectivity to a VGA or DVI-I display or digital connectivity to a DVI-D display. If both connectors are DVI-I, you can use any DVI cable, but DVI-I is recommended.

DVI-A (analog) This interface is used to carry a DVI signal from a computer to an analog VGA device, such as a display. If one connection is DVI and the other is VGA HD15, you need a cable or adapter with both connectors.

DFP (Digital Flat Panel) was an early digital-only connector used on some displays.

EVC (also known as P&D, for Plug & Display), another older connector, handles digital and analog connections.

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Black Box Explains...Types of KVM switches.

Black Box has the keyboard/video switches you need to share one CPU between several workstations or to control several CPUs from one monitor and keyboard.

If you do a lot of... more/see it nowswitching, you need premium switches—our top-of-the-line ServSwitch™ KVM switches give you the most reliable connections for the amount of KVM equipment supported. With ServSwitch KVM switches, you can manage as many CPUs as you want from just one workstation, and you can access any server in any computer room from any workstation. Eliminating needless equipment not only saves you money, it also gives you more space and less clutter. Plus, you can switch between PCs, Sun®, and Mac® CPUs. ServSwitch KVM switches can also cut your electricity and cooling costs because by sharing monitors, you use less power and generate less heat.

If your switching demands are very minor, you may not need products as advanced as ServSwitch. Black Box offers switches to fill less demanding needs. Most of these are manual switches or basic electronic switches, which don’t have the sophisticated emulation technology used by the ServSwitch.

For PCs with PS/2® keyboards, try our Keyboard/Video Switches. They send keyboard signals, so your CPUs boot up as though they each have their own keyboard.

With the RS/6000™ KVM Switch, you can run up to six RS/6000 servers from one workstation. Our Keyboard/ Video Switch for Mac enables you to control up to two Mac CPUs from one keyboard and monitor.

With BLACK BOX® KVM Switches, you can share a workstation with two or four CPUs. They’re available in IBM® PC and Sun Workstation® configurations.

You’ll also find that our long-life manual Keyboard/Video Switches are perfect for basic switching applications. collapse


Black Box Explains... Manual switch chassis styles.

There are five manual switch chassis styles: three for standalone switches (Styles A, B, and C) and two for rackmount switches (Styles D and E). Below are the specifications for... more/see it noweach style.

Standalone Switches

Chassis Style A
Size — 2.5"H x 6"W x 6.3"D (6.4 x 15.2 x 16 cm
Weight — 1.5 lb. (0.7 kg)
Chassis Style B
Size — 3.5"H x 6"W x 6.3"D (8.9 x 15.2 x 16 cm)
Weight — 1.5 lb. (0.7 kg)
Chassis Style C
Size — 3.5"H x 17"W x 5.9"D (8.9 x 43.2 x 15 cm)
Weight — 8.4 lb. (3.8 kg)

Rackmount Switches

Chassis Style D (Mini Chassis)
Size — 3.5"H x 19"W x 5.9"D (8.9 x 48.3 x 15 cm)
Chassis Style E (Standard Chassis)
Size — 7"H x 19"W x 5.9"D (17.8 x 48.3 x 15 cm) collapse


Black Box Explains...Wireless Ethernet standards.

IEEE 802.11
The precursor to 802.11b, IEEE 802.11 was introduced in 1997. It was a beginning, but 802.11 only supported speeds up to 2 Mbps. And it supported two entirely different... more/see it nowmethods of encoding—Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS). This led to confusion and incompatibility between different vendors’ equipment.

IEEE 802.11b
802.11b is comfortably established as the most popular wireless standard. With the IEEE 802.11b Ethernet standard, wireless is fast, easy, and affordable. Wireless devices from all vendors work together seamlessly. 802.11b is a perfect example of a technology that has become both sophisticated and standardized enough to really make life simpler for its users.

The 802.11b extension of the original 802.11 standard boosts wireless throughput from 2 Mbps all the way up to 11 Mbps. 802.11b can transmit up to 200 feet under good conditions, although this distance may be reduced considerably by the presence of obstacles such as walls.

This standard uses DSSS. With DSSS, each bit transmitted is encoded and the encoded bits are sent in parallel across an entire range of frequencies. The code used in a transmission is known only to the sending and receiving stations. By transmitting identical signals across the entire range of frequencies, DSSS helps to reduce interference and makes it possible to recover lost data without retransmission.

IEEE 802.11a
The 802.11a wireless Ethernet standard is new on the scene. It uses a different band than 802.11b—the 5.8-GHz band called U-NII (Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure) in the United States. Because the U-NII band has a higher frequency and a larger bandwidth allotment than the 2.4-GHz band, the 802.11a standard achieves speeds of up to 54 Mbps. However, it’s more limited in range than 802.11b. It uses an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) encoding scheme rather than FHSS or DSSS.

IEEE 802.11g
802.11g is an extension of 802.11b and operates in the same 2.4-GHz band as 802.11b. It brings data rates up to 54 Mbps using OFDM technology.

Because it's actually an extension of 802.11b, 802.11g is backward-compatible with 802.11b—an 802.11b device can interface directly with an 802.11g access point. However, because 802.11g also runs on the same three channels as 802.11b, it can crowd already busy frequencies.

Super G® is a subset of 802.11g and is a proprietary extension of the 802.11g standard that doubles throughput to 108 Mbps. Super G is not an IEEE approved standard. If you use it, you should use devices from one vendor to ensure compatibility. Super G is generally backwards compatible with 802.11g.

802.11n
80211n improves upon 802.11g significantly with an increase in the data rate to 600 Mbps. Channels operate at 40 MHz doubling the channel width from 20 MHz. 802.11n operates on both the 2.4 GHz and the 5 GHz bands. 802.11n also added multiple-input multiple-output antennas (MIMO).

MIMO
Multiple-Input/Multiple-Output (MIMO) is a part of the new IEEE 802.11n wireless standard. It’s a technique that uses multiple signals to increase the speed, reliability, and coverage of wireless networks. It transmits multiple datastreams simultaneously, increasing wireless capacity to up to 100 or even 250 Mbps.

This wireless transmission method takes advantage of a radio transmission characteristic called multipath, which means that radio waves bouncing off surfaces such as walls and ceilings will arrive at the antenna at fractionally different times. This characteristic has long been considered to be a nuisance that impairs wireless transmission, but MIMO technology actually exploits it to enhance wireless performance.

MIMO sends a high-speed data stream across multiple antennas by breaking it into several lower-speed streams and sending them simultaneously. Each signal travels multiple routes for redundancy.

To pick up these multipath signals, MIMO uses multiple antennas and compares signals many times a second to select the best one. A MIMO receiver makes sense of these signals by using a mathematical algorithm to reconstruct the signals. Because it has multiple signals to choose from, MIMO achieves higher speeds at greater ranges than conventional wireless hardware does. collapse


Black Box Explains...4K

4K is a term to describe a maximum video resolution of 4096 x 2400 pixels. However, the most commonly used resolution is UHD (Ultra High Definition) at 3840 x 2160... more/see it nowpixels. This resolution basically allows for four full HD signals of 1920 x 1080 pixels to be displayed on a single screen. Unfortunately, the pure pixel count doesn't tell the complete the story. The following overview provides an examination of some key differences to provide users with a better understanding of potential requirements to help select suitable solutions.

Technical Details

  • Maximum resolution: 4096 x 2400, with 3840 x 2160 reflecting between 8.9 Megapixel and 9.8 Megapixel
  • Refresh rate: 24p/30p/60p

  • Typical Interfaces
    DVI-D
    The DVI specification allows 1920 x 1200 pixels to be transmitted in single-link format or 2560 x 1600 (2048 x 2048) pixels in dual link. Typically, the single link is supported by 23- or 24-inch displays, commonly called Full HD panels. The dual-link resolutions require larger screen sizes of typically 27 inches (2560 x 1440), 30 inch (2560 x 1600), or square ATC displays of 2048 x 2048 pixels.

    Full 4K resolutions of 3840 x 2160 or higher over DVI dual link are possible, but only at less than 30 Hz due to bandwidth limitations. The bandwidth required for professional AV and PC environments can come to 4.95 Gbps (165 Mhz) for single link or 9.9 Gbps (2x 165 Mhz) for dual-link DVI.

    HDMI
    HDMI and DVI share the same digital video signal format, but HDMI 1.2 allows for higher pixel clock frequencies, resulting in higher bandwidth or resolutions and deeper color.

    The specifications vary based on the different HDMI versions. Up to HDMI 1.2 the specs more or less reflect those of DVI video. HDMI 1.3 and 1.4 exceed the dual-link DVI specs although it only uses a single link. HDMI 1.3/1.4 bandwidth is 10.2 Gbps (single link 140 Mhz).

    Most HDMI 4K appliances and displays currently on the market are limited to 30 Hz. The recently released HDMI 2.0 standard increases bandwidth to 18 Gpbs (600 Mhz), effectively matching the bandwidth of DisplayPort for supporting 4K at up to 60 fps. The first HDMI 2.0 displays supporting this full specification are presently showing up on the market. HDMI is commonly used on almost all consumer and professional AV equipment.

    DisplayPort 1.2
    DisplayPort is a slightly different, micro packet-based, video standard supporting a maximum bandwidth of approximately 17 Gbits. This currently makes it the only suitable single-connect option for full UHD (3840 x 2160) at 60 fps.

    DisplayPort is mainly used on PC graphic adapter cards. Note: all current graphics cards with DisplayPort support the full DisplayPort 1.2a specification of 5.4 Gbps per lane and therefore only support 30 fps rather than 60 fps 4K resolutions.

    Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 1.0 is an Apple-only interface for multi-purpose use including video. Thunderbolt is compatible with DP 1.1 and capable of natively outputting DisplayPort signals. Thunderbolt 2.0 is needed to support 4K at 60Hz, and is compatible with DisplayPort 1.2.

    Different ways of delivering 4K
    Depending on the specifications of the equipment being used, a 4K signal may be delivered in the following ways:

    Full spec 60 fps
  • Display/projector with four single-link DVI interfaces and synchronized channels. Acts like a video wall in just a single large device.
  • Display/projector with two dual-link DVI interfaces and synchronized channels. Acts like a video wall in just a single large device.
  • Display/projector with either two dula-link DVI or HDMI 1.4 inputs. The term used to describe this method is Multiple Protocol Transport (MPT).
  • Display with either DisplayPort, Thunderbolt, or upcoming HDMI 2.0 full spec interfaces.

  • 4K @ 24/30 fps
  • Display/projector with either one dual-link DVI or HDMI 1.4 input. (MPT.)
  • Display with either DisplayPort, Thunderbolt or upcoming HDMI 2.0 full spec interfaces.
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    Black Box Explains... Video extenders with built-in skew compensation.

    To ensure the best video resolution, it’s important to match your video extension device with a compatible grade of cable. Some multimedia extenders are not designed to transmit video across... more/see it nowcable that’s higher than CAT5. In fact, with these extenders, the higher-grade cable may actually degrade video.

    The problem is with the cable twists of CAT5e and CAT6 cables. To reduce signaling crosstalk, these higher-grade cables have tighter twists—and more of them—than CAT5 cable does. For this reason, the wire distance that an electrical signal has to travel is different for each pair. This doesn’t normally cause a problem with data, but if you’re sending higher-resolution analog video signals across long cables, you may see color separation caused by the video signals arriving at different times.

    To avoid this, you could use only the lower-grade cable with the extenders. But what if you already have CAT5e or higher cable installed in your building, or you simply want the latest and greatest copper wiring? Order an extender receiver that features built-in skew compensation so it can work properly with higher cable grades at longer distances. collapse


    Black Box Explains...USB.

    What is USB?
    Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a royalty-free bus specification developed in the 1990s by leading manufacturers in the PC and telephony industries to support plug-and-play peripheral connections. USB... more/see it nowhas standardized how peripherals, such as keyboards, disk drivers, cameras, printers, and hubs) are connected to computers.

    USB offers increased bandwidth, isochronous and asynchronous data transfer, and lower cost than older input/output ports. Designed to consolidate the cable clutter associated with multiple peripherals and ports, USB supports all types of computer- and telephone-related devices.

    Universal Serial Bus (USB) USB detects and configures the new devices instantly.
    Before USB, adding peripherals required skill. You had to open your computer to install a card, set DIP switches, and make IRQ settings. Now you can connect digital printers, recorders, backup drives, and other devices in seconds. USB detects and configures the new devices instantly.

    Benefits of USB.
    • USB is “universal.” Almost every device today has a USB port of some type.
    • Convenient plug-and-play connections. No powering down. No rebooting.
    • Power. USB supplies power so you don’t have to worry about adding power. The A socket supplies the power.
    • Speed. USB is fast and getting faster. The original USB 1.0 had a data rate of 1.5 Mbps. USB 3.0 has a data rate of 4.8 Gbps.

    USB Standards

    USB 1.1
    USB 1.1, introduced in 1995, is the original USB standard. It has two data rates: 12 Mbps (Full-Speed) for devices such as disk drives that need high-speed throughput and 1.5 Mbps (Low-Speed) for devices such as joysticks that need much lower bandwidth.

    USB 2.0
    In 2002, USB 2.0, (High-Speed) was introduced. This version is backward-compatible with USB 1.1. It increases the speed of the peripheral to PC connection from 12 Mbps to 480 Mbps, or 40 times faster than USB 1.1.

    This increase in bandwidth enhances the use of external peripherals that require high throughput, such as printers, cameras, video equipment, and more. USB 2.0 supports demanding applications, such as Web publishing, in which multiple high-speed devices run simultaneously.

    USB 3.0
    USB 3.0 (SuperSpeed) (2008) provides vast improvements over USB 2.0. USB 3.0 has speeds up to 5 Gbps, nearly ten times that of USB 2.0. USB 3.0 adds a physical bus running in parallel with the existing 2.0 bus.

    USB 3.0 is designed to be backward compatible with USB 2.0.

    USB 3.0 Connector
    USB 3.0 has a flat USB Type A plug, but inside there is an extra set of connectors and the edge of the plug is blue instead of white. The Type B plug looks different with an extra set of connectors. Type A plugs from USB 3.0 and 2.0 are designed to interoperate. USB 3.0 Type B plugs are larger than USB 2.0 plugs. USB 2.0 Type B plugs can be inserted into USB 3.0 receptacles, but the opposite is not possible.

    USB 3.0 Cable
    The USB 3.0 cable contains nine wires—four wire pairs plus a ground. It has two more data pairs than USB 2.0, which has one pair for data and one pair for power. The extra pairs enable USB 3.0 to support bidirectional asynchronous, full-duplex data transfer instead of USB 2.0’s half-duplex polling method.

    USB 3.0 Power
    USB 3.0 provides 50% more power than USB 2.0 (150 mA vs 100 mA) to unconfigured devices and up to 80% more power (900 mA vs 500 mA) to configured devices. It also conserves power too compared to USB 2.0, which uses power when the cable isn’t being used.

    USB 3.1
    Released in 2013, is called SuperSpeed USB 10 Gbps. There are three main differentiators to USB 3.1. It doubles the data rate from 5 Gbps to 10 Gbps. It will use the new, under-development Type C connector, which is far smaller and designed for use with everything from laptops to mobile phones. The Type C connector is being touted as a single-cable solution for audio, video, data, and power. It will also have a reversible plug orientation. Lastly, will have bidirectional power delivery of up to 100 watts and power auto-negotiation. It is backward compatible with USB 3.0 and 2.0, but an adapter is needed for the physical connection.

    Transmission Rates
    USB 3.0: 4.8 Gbps
    USB 2.0: 480 Mbps
    USB 1.1: 12 Mbps

    Cable Length/Node
    5 meters (3 meters for 3.0 devices requiring higher speeds).
    Devices/bus: 127
    Tier/bus: 5
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