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Black Box Explains...Multi-user ServSwitch products vs. multipoint access ServSwitch products.

A multi-user ServSwitch, such as the Matrix ServSwitch, enables two or more users to access different servers at the same time. So, for instance, one user can access “Server A”... more/see it nowwhile another user accesses “Server B.” This is considered a “true two-channel” architecture because two users have independent access to CPUs. It should be pointed out that multiple users cannot access the same server at the same time.

A multipoint access ServSwitch, such as the ServSwitch Duo, provides two access points for control stations but requires that both users view the same server at the same time. So, if one user is accessing “Server A” on his screen, the other user is also seeing “Server A” on his screen. If the second user switches to “Server B,“ the first user will also switch to “Server B.” Only one of these users is actually in control. The user in control stays in control until his workstation is inactive for a period of time (selectable). Then the other station can take control.

A multipoint access ServSwitch is useful when simultaneous, independent access is not required—just the ability to access CPUs from more than one place.

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Black Box Explains...Digital Visual Interface (DVI) and other digital display interfaces.

There are three main types of digital video interfaces: P&D, DFP, and DVI. P&D (Plug & Display, also known as EVC), the earliest of these technologies, supports both digital and... more/see it nowanalog RGB connections and is now used primarily on projectors. DFP (Digital Flat-Panel Port) was the first digital-only connector on displays and graphics cards; it’s being phased out.

There are different types of DVI connectors: DVI-D, DVI-I, DVI-A, DFP, and EVC.

DVI-D is a digital-only connector. DVI-I supports both digital and analog RGB connections. Some manufacturers are offering the DVI-I connector type on their products instead of separate analog and digital connectors. DVI-A is used to carry an analog DVI signal to a VGA device, such as a display. DFP, like DVI-D, was an early digital-only connector used on some displays; it’s being phased out. EVC (also known as P&D) is similar to DVI-I only it’s slightly larger in size. It also handles digital and analog connections, and it’s used primarily on projectors.

All these standards are based on transition-minimized differential signaling (TMDS). In a typical single-line digital signal, voltage is raised to a high level and decreased to a low level to create transitions that convey data. TMDS uses a pair of signal wires to minimize the number of transitions needed to transfer data. When one wire goes to a high-voltage state, the other goes to a low-voltage state. This balance increases the data-transfer rate and improves accuracy. collapse


Black Box Explains...KVM tray technology.

KVM tray technology. What we do that others don’t.
From the solid construction of our KVM trays, to unique features like LEDs on the ?front panel and integrated KVM switching, Black Box’s... more/see it nowKVM trays are miles ahead of the competition.

Nothing reduces clutter in a server room like KVM trays that are 1- or 2U high, and ?mount in a cabinet or rack. Here are some of the features that set our KVM trays apart.

TFT LCD support.
This type of monitor uses thin-film transistor (TFT) technology to improve image quality, resulting in higher resolutions, better image contrast, and addressability. All our KVM trays support TFT LCD panel monitors.

Viewing angles.
The screens on our KVM trays are viewable from nearly any angle. Because of the size of our screens, from 15" to 19", viewing angles vary from 140° x 120° all the way up to 160° x 160°, so you don’t always have to be standing directly in front of the monitor to see what’s happening on it.

Universal rail.
Our ServTray Complete family of KVM trays (KVT417A-R2, etc.) has adjustable length instead of a variety of rear bracket sites. This universal rail rear bracket size fits racks with depths of 23.7" (60.2 cm) to 45.3" (115 cm). This simplifies ordering for you!

Dual rail technology.
This KVM tray technology enables the monitor drawer and the keyboard/mouse drawer to move independently of each other. It makes it easy to leave the monitor visible even when a server cabinet is closed and the keyboard/mouse drawer is fully retracted. Black Box has added switching controls to the monitor bezel that can be used to control an attached switch without pulling open the keyboard/mouse drawer for even more space-saving benefits.

Additionally, the dual rails provide a great monitoring environment without disturbing your cooling system.

You asked for it.
Our latest KVM trays, the ServView V KVM Drawer and ServView V KVM Drawer with Widescreen (KVT517A, etc.) were designed based on feedback we have received from some of our customers.

On the front panel of the tray, there is an LED panel, which helps you locate the ?drawer when it’s closed in a darkened data center. The tray only takes up 1U of rack space, and it features the dual rail technology described earlier.

We added front-panel controls for switching, so if you choose a model with an embedded KVM switch, you can use the buttons on the monitor bezel without pulling out the keyboard. Additionally, the top of the keyboard tray features a hideaway connection for USB wireless devices, such as RF- or Bluetooth® supported keyboards and mice. You can wirelessly access your attached targets, even without opening the cabinet door!

Another feature is the front-panel USB port, which provides crash cart access. If your keyboard or GlidePoint® mouse quit on you, simply use this port to attach a passthrough pointing device.

Finally, the widescreen version supports 1920 x 1080 resolutions and DVI connections — two firsts in the data center. collapse


Black Box Explains...On-screen menus.

When the ServSwitch™ brand of KVM switches was first introduced, there were only two ways to switch: from front-panel push buttons or by sending command sequences from the keyboard. While... more/see it nowthis was more convenient than having a separate keyboard, monitor, and mouse for each CPU, the operator still had to remember key combinations and which server was connected to which port—leading to many cryptic, scribbled notes attached to the switch and to the workstation.

But with the advent of on-screen menus, an operator can use easy-to-read, pop-up menus to identify and select CPUs. It’s even possible to give each CPU a name that makes sense to you—names like “MIS Server,” “Accounting Server,” and so on.
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Black Box Explains...UTP cable and color drift.

UTP cable is often used with video or KVM extenders to extend the reach of a video signal. It’s popular for this application because it’s lightweight, easy to handle, and... more/see it nowinexpensive. But when you transmit video over long stretches of twisted-pair cable, you sometimes run into a phenomenon called color drift or color split.

Color drift shows up as that annoying colored shadow you occasionally see around objects on a video screen. It sometimes happens with UTP cable because the pairs of wire in the cable are twisted at slightly different rates to reduce crosstalk between pairs. Because of these differences between wire pairs, video signals for different colors often travel different distances before they reach the remote receiver. When one color signal arrives behind the others because its wire is longer, you get that red, green, or blue shadow around the objects on your video screen.

UTP cable varies widely by manufacturer, so before installing video extenders, it’s difficult to determine whether or not you’re going to have a color drift problem. You’re more likely to experience color drift with higher grades (CAT5e or CAT6) of cable, on longer cable runs, and on high-resolution screens.

If you experience color drift, there are several possible solutions. You can use a shorter length of cable, switch from CAT5e or CAT6 cable to CAT5 cable, use a lower screen resolution, or use a video skew compensator.

A video skew compensator removes color drift by delaying some color signals to compensate for differences in wire pairs. collapse


Black Box Explains... Using fiber optics for KVM extension.

If you‘re sending KVM signals between buildings for an extended distance, in areas supplied by different power sources, in an electrically noisy environment, or where data security is a big... more/see it nowconcern, you need to use a fiber optic-based KVM extender.

Optical fiber is an ideal transmission medium not only for backbone and horizontal connection, but also for workstation-to-backracked CPU or server links. It works very well in applications where you need to transfer large, bandwidth-consuming data files over long distances, and where you require immunity from electrical interference or data theft.

The choice for extraordinary reach.
Fiber doesn’t have the 100-meter (328-ft.) distance limitation that UTP copper without a booster does. Fiber distances can range from 300 meters (984.2 ft.) to 70 kilometers (24.8 mi.), depending on the cable, wavelength, and network. With fiber-based KVM extenders, the transmitter converts conventional data signals into a modulated light beam, then transports the beam via the fiber to a receiver, which converts the light back into electrical signals.

Many newer fiber-based KVM extenders support both analog and digital transmission. Often, they work by digitizing video output from a local CPU, then sending it across fiber link to a remote unit, which converts it back to the original analog signal. In many cases, one fiber of the fiber pair transmits monitor video serially and the second fiber sends remote mouse and keyboard information back to the local CPU.

The choice for ensuring signal integrity.
Because fiber is made of glass, which is an insulator, no electric current can flow through. It’s immune to electromagnetic interference and radio-frequency interference (EMI/RFI), crosstalk, impedance problems, and more. This is why fiber-based KVM extenders are beneficial to users in process control, engineering, utility, and factory automation applications. The users need to keep critical information safe and secure off the factory floor but be able to access that data from workstations and control consoles within the harsh environments. Plus, fiber is also less susceptible to temperature fluctuations than copper is, and it can be submerged ?in water.

The choice for greater signal fidelity.
Fiber-based KVM extenders can carry more information with greater fidelity than copper-based ones can. For this reason, they’re ideal for high-data-rate systems in which multimedia workstations are used.

Newer KVM extenders enable you to send both DVI and keyboard and mouse signals over the same fiber cable, transmitting video digitally for zero signal loss. This way, you can get HD-quality resolution even at very long distances from the source. Users in university or government R&D, broadcasting, healthcare—basically anyone who depends on detailed image rendering—can benefit from this technology.

The choice for data security.
Plus, your data is safe when using fiber to connect a workstation with a CPU or server under lock and key. It doesn’t radiate signals and is extremely difficult to tap. If the cable is tapped, it’s very easy to monitor because the cable leaks light, causing the entire system to fail. If an attempt is made to break the physical security of your fiber system, you’ll know it.

Many IT managers in military, government, finance, and healthcare choose fiber-based KVM extenders for this very reason. Plus corporations, aware of rising data privacy concerns over customer billing information and the need to protect intellectual property, use this type of extension technology in their offices, too.

Considerations for fiber-based KVM extension.
Before selecting a fiber-based KVM extender, it’s important to know the limitations of your system. You need to know where couplers, links, interconnect equipment, and other devices are going to be placed. If it’s a longer run, you have to determine whether multimode or single-mode fiber cable is needed.

The most important consideration in planning cabling for fiber-based KVM extension is the power budget specification of device connection. The receiver at the remote end has to receive the light signal at a certain level. This value, called the loss budget, tells you the amount of loss in decibels (dB) that can be present in the link between the two devices before the units fail to perform properly.

Specifically, this value takes the fiber type (multimode or single-mode) and wavelength you intend to use—and the amount of expected in-line attenuation—into consideration. This is the decrease of signal strength as it travels through the fiber cable. In the budget loss calculation, you also have to account for splices, patch panels, and connectors, where additional dBs may lost in the entire end-to-end fiber extension. If the measured loss is less than the number calculated by your loss budget, your installation is good.

Testers are available to determine if the fiber cabling supports your intended application. You can measure how much light is going to the other end of the cable. Generally, these testers give you the results in dB lost, which you then compare to the loss budget to determine your link loss margin.

Also, in some instances, particularly when using single-mode fiber to drive the signal farther, the signal may be too strong between connected devices. This causes the light signal to reflect back down the fiber cable, which can corrupt data, result in a faulty transmission, and even damage equipment. To prevent this, use fiber attenuators. They’re used with ?single-mode fiber optic devices and cable to filter the strength of the fiber optic signal from the transmitter’s LED output so it doesn’t overwhelm the receiver. Depending on the type of attenuator attached to the devices at each end of the link, you can diminish the strength of the light signal a variable amount by a certain number of decibels.

Need help calculating your budget loss? Call our FREE Tech Support. If necessary, they can even recommend a fusion splicing fiber kit, a fiber tester, or a signal attenuator for your specific requirements. collapse


Black Box Explains...CAT5: When more isn’t always better.

In data communications applications, using products that exceed required capacities is usually not a problem. For example, if a 28.8K modem is required, a 33.6K or 56K model will work... more/see it nowjust fine.

But sometimes, more isn’t better. Take KVM extenders designed to expect CAT5 and only CAT5 cable. You’d expect that Category 3 cable wouldn’t be effective with these products, and you would be right.

But you may also assume that if Category 5 cable works fine, Category 5e, Category 6, and other higher-capacity cables would work even better. Unfortunately, this isn’t the case, and here’s why:

KVM extenders from many manufacturers, including ServSwitch CAT5 KVM Extenders, are designed specifically for the Category 5 specs defined by the TIA/EIA standard. Higher-level cables, such as Category 5e, have different characteristics and specifications. Although differences—specifically twist ratios—might seem small, they can have a negative impact on these extenders, which are expecting a true Category 5 transmission.

So with ServSwitch CAT5 KVM Extenders, you can think big with CAT5—just don’t think bigger. collapse


Black Box Explains…Wizard.NET

One software solution to rule them all.
Wizard.NET is a professional enterprise management suite that delivers total IP device control, management, and connectivity. Black Box KVM over IP (KVMoIP) devices provide... more/see it nowthe ability to control large numbers of host computers from remote locations. When controlling larger groups of dispersed computers using numerous KVMoIP devices, the major challenge becomes one of management—retaining active control over a complex mix of devices, host computers, and registered users. Wizard.NET was developed as a common interface to help you remotely manage any number of KVMoIP devices together with all of their connected host computers and the access rights of the users.

Wizard.NET is delivered as a software solution only, and operates as a server application running on a system that can be completely separate from any of the KVMoIP devices?—?it merely requires an IP network or Internet connection. Wizard.NET uses an intuitive HTML user interface, which means that registered users can access and control it remotely using a standard Web browser. Like all Wizard KVMoIP products, Wizard.NET employs high specification security techniques to ensure that only authorized users may gain access.

Wizard.NET has two main modules, the manager and the connector. The manager module is accessible only to managers and administrators. It is where the details about all connected devices, hosts, and users are configured and stored. The connector module can be used by registered users to enable quick access to all of the targets for which they have access rights. Targets may be devices, hosts, or device groups as appropriate.

To ensure maximum security, Wizard.NET does not retain any passwords within its database for the devices that it controls. Instead, a valid password is used once only to gain access to each device during the “acquire” stage, when Wizard.NET establishes a Secure Ticket with the device. In all subsequent accesses to each device, the relevant secure ticket is used to gain access. collapse


Black Box Explains...KVMoIP access technology.

KVMoIP access technology extends keyboard, video, and mouse (KVM) signals from any computer or server over TCP/IP via a LAN, WAN, or Internet connection. Through this KVM over IP (KVMoIP)... more/see it nowconnection, remote users can access and control a number of servers simultaneously from wherever they are, inside or outside the organization, and anywhere in the world. This technology works in diverse hardware environments and is ideal for managing multilocation data centers and branch offices.

These capabilities translate into real savings for companies having to deal with the proliferation of servers in many offices, particularly for corporations and government agencies required to deliver 24/7 uptime and real-time access to mission-critical servers 365 days a year.

KVMoIP products combine the advantages of remote access software with the benefits of KVM switching technology. Like most KVM switches, KVMoIP products don’t require any software to be loaded on the host computers. They interface directly with the keyboard, monitor, and mouse connectors of the host computer or KVM switch. Circuitry within the KVMoIP device digitizes the incoming video signal and processes it into digital data that is communicated to a viewer program running on a remote client computer over a LAN/WAN or the public Internet.

By addressing network issues from a remote location, you can simply manage issues from your desk, or even save yourself the hassle of traveling to a site in the middle of the night. Use a browser-based connection, even a cell phone or PDA, to reboot or administer a roomful of servers remotely—a real convenience.

KVMoIP products that feature virtual media technology take that convenience further. They enable a remote user to effortlessly move files from a mass storage device—a USB flash drive or CD-ROM drive, for instance—from your location to the computer on which you’re working. Cost savings are realized through reduced downtime and less travel. Plus, in some cases, there‘s no to need replace existing KVM switches with proprietary ones to get a KVMoIP server-control solution.

The Black Box difference
Black Box® ServSwitch™ KVMoIP solutions go further than many other KVMoIP products on the market. They not only enable you to access remote servers, but they do this at the BIOS level—important when you go need to troubleshoot from off-site and don’t want to a dispatch a technician. Install or recover software applications and install OS patches from your location anywhere in the world. Plus, this BIOS-level control is possible regardless of the server’s brand or model and even works if the operating system is down.

The ServReach™ system is also designed for IT managers seeking global centralized KVM management in a world of mushrooming servers and complexity. This global platform works by consolidating all server access and devices via locally connected KVMoIP devices. All this hardware is then united under a single management appliance or software “umbrella” providing global, yet fully secure, out-of-band control.

The ServReach system works seamlessly with more than 500 variations of analog KVM switches from a multitude of vendors and manufacturers. Because it’s vendor independent, you don’t need to replace your data center’s entire KVM infrastructure. ServReach simply grafts global centralized KVM management onto the existing server room/data center, aligning with third-party KVM switches already in place. This is done with the ServReach KVMGate (KVIP1000A), an IP gateway device designed to connect to each of the legacy KVM devices to provide global centralized KVM management for a fraction of the cost of competitive systems, ensuring a faster and greater ROI.

If you’re planning on opening or acquiring a new data center or a large number of new servers, the ServReach KVManager (KVMGR) is the answer. It can provide any-by-any access via the ServReach KVMCube (KVIP1001A), a compact, rackmountable, digital matrix IP device that gives fully secure, non-blocking access for any of the users to any of the servers simultaneously.

In addition, the servers controlled by legacy KVM switches via KVMGate can still be managed by the ServReach KVManager at the same time as the new servers controlled through a gateway. With all the servers under the same KVManager umbrella, data centers can now easily acquire new servers and devices without having to worry about how to incorporate the new infrastructure with the old. For more information on Black Box KVMoIP solutions, visit blackbox.com/go/ServReach. Find out more by watching a KVMoIP demo and accessing related white papers. collapse


Black Box Explains... Multiplatform cabling environments.

When using a ServSwitch™ with multiple computer platforms, choosing which peripherals to use to control your diverse group of CPUs can be confusing. Because of the wide variation in connector... more/see it nowtypes and compatibilities, there is a hierarchy to follow when choosing your “user station“ keyboard, monitor, and mouse.

1. If you have at least one Sun® computer in your application, you should use a Sun keyboard and mouse to control your CPUs.

2. If you have a mixture of PCs and Mac® computers, use your PC-style keyboard and mouse to control your CPUs. collapse

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