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Black Box Explains... KVM IP gateways

Just as a gate serves as an entry or exit point to a property, a gateway serves the same purpose in the networking world. It’s the device that acts as... more/see it nowa network entrance or go-between for two or more networks.

There are different types of gateways, depending on the network.

An application gateway converts data or commands from one format to another. A VoIP gateway converts analog voice calls into VoIP packets. An IP gateway is like a media gateway, translating data from one telecommunications device to another.

Gateways often include other features and devices, such as protocol converters, routers, firewalls, encryption, voice compression, etc. Although a gateway is an essential feature of most routers, other devices, such as a PC or server, can also function as a gateway.

A KVMoIP switch contains an IP gateway, which is the pathway the KVM signals use to travel from the IP network to an existing non-IP KVM switch. It converts and directs the KVM signals, giving a user access to and control of an existing non-IP KVM switch over the Internet. collapse

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    Digital KVM extension and switching over IP.
 
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    New Feature Document for the ACR1000A-CTL, ACR1000A, ACR1002A-T, and ACR1002A-R (Version 1)
 
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    User Manual for the KV9404A, KV9408A, and KV9416A (Version 1)
 
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    Firmware for the KV4161A
 

Black Box Explains...Multicasting video over a LAN: Use the right switch.

In KVM extension applications where you want to distribute HD video across a network, you need to understand how it works and what kind of networking equipment to use with... more/see it nowyour extenders.

Think of your network as a river of data with a steady current of data moving smoothly down the channel. All your network users are like tiny tributaries branching off this river, taking only as much water (bandwidth) as they need to process data. When you start to multicast video, data, and audio over the LAN, those streams suddenly become the size of the main river. Each user is then basically flooded with data and it becomes difficult or impossible to do any other tasks. This scenario of sending transmissions to every user on the network is called broadcasting, and it slows down the network to a trickle. There are network protocol methods that alleviate this problem, but it depends on the network switch you use.

Unicast vs. multicasting, and why a typical Layer 2 switch isn’t sufficient.
Unicasting is sending data from one network device to another (point to point); in a typical unicast network, Layer 2 switches easily support these types of communications. But multicasting is transmitting data from one network device to multiple users. When multicasting with Layer 2 switches, all attached devices receive the packets, whether they want them or not. Because a multicast header does NOT have a destination IP address, an average network switch (a Layer 2 switch without supported capabilities) will not know what to do with it. So the switch sends the packet out to every network port on all attached devices. When the client or network interface card (NIC) receives the packet, it analyzes it and discards it if not wanted.

The solution: a Layer 3 switch with IGMPv2 or IGMPv3 and packet forwarding.
Multicasting with Layer 3 switches is much more efficient than with Layer 2 switches because it identifies the multicast packet and sends it only to the intended receivers. A Layer 2 switch sends the multicast packets to every device and, If there are many sources, the network will slow down because of all the traffic. And, without IGMPv2 or IGMPv3 snooping support, the switch can handle only a few devices sending multicasting packets.

Layer 3 switches with IGMP support, however, “know” who wants to receive the multicast packet and who doesn’t. When a receiving device wants to tap into a multicasting stream, it responds to the multicast broadcast with an IGMP report, the equivalent of saying, “I want to connect to this stream.” The report is only sent in the first cycle, initializing the connection between the stream and receiving device. If the device was previously connected to the stream, it sends a grafting request for removing the temporary block on the unicast routing table. The switch can then send the multicast packets to newly connected members of the multicast group. Then, when a device no longer wants to receive the multicast packets, it sends a pruning request to the IGMP-supported switch, which temporarily removes the device from the multicast group and stream.

Therefore, for multicasting, use routers or Layer 3 switches that support the IGMP protocol. Without this support, your network devices will be receiving so many multicasting packets, they will not be able to communicate with other devices using different protocols, such as FTP. Plus, a feature-rich, IGMP-supported Layer 3 switch gives you the bandwidth control needed to send video from multiple sources over a LAN. collapse

  • Manual... 
  • ServSwitch Wizard IP DXS KVM Extension User Manual
    User Manual for the ACR101A and ACR201A (Version 1)
 
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