Black Box Explains...Fiber connectors.
• The ST® connector, which uses a bayonet locking system, is the most common connector.
• The SC connector features a molded body and a push- pull locking system.
• The FDDI... more/see it nowconnector comes with a 2.5-mm free-floating ferrule and a fixed shroud to minimize light loss.
• The MT-RJ connector, a small-form RJ-style connector, features a molded body and uses cleave-and-leave splicing.
• The LC connector, a small-form factor connector, features a ceramic ferrule and looks like a mini SC connector.
• The VF-45™connector is another small-form factor connector. It uses a unique V-groove design.
• The FC connector is a threaded body connector. Secure it by screwing the connector body to the mating threads. Used in high-vibration environments.
• The MTO/MTP connector is a fiber connector that uses high-fiber-count ribbon cable. Its used in high-density fiber applications.
• The MU connector resembles the larger SC connector. It uses a simple push-pull latching connection and is well suited for high-density applications.
Black Box Explains...Augmented Category 6 (CAT6A).
Augmented Category 6 (CAT6a)–Class Ea was ratified in February 2008. This standard calls for 10-Gigabit Ethernet data transmission over a 4-pair copper cabling system up to 100 meters. CAT6a extends... more/see it nowCAT6 electrical specifications from 250 MHz to 500 MHz. It introduces the ANEXT requirement. It also replaces the term Equal Level Far-End Crosstalk (ELFEXT) with Attenuation to Crosstalk Ratio, Far-End (ACRF) to mesh with ISO terminology. CAT6a provides improved insertion loss over CAT6. It is a good choice for noisy environments with lots of EMI. CAT6a is also well-suited for use with PoE+.
CAT6a UTP cable is significantly larger than CAT6 cable. It features larger conductors, usually 22 AWG, and is designed with more space between the pairs to minimize ANEXT. The outside diameter of CAT6a cable averages 0.29–0.35" compared to 0.21–0.24" for CAT6 cable. This reduces number of cables you can fit in a conduit. At a 40% fill ratio, you can run three CAT6a cables in a 3/4" conduit vs. five CAT6
There are two types of CAT6a cable, UTP and F/UTP.
Black Box Explains...Industrial Ethernet (Ethernet/IP) and IP-rated connectors.
Ethernet technology is coming to the factory floor. Once limited to office environments, Ethernet has proven to be a robust alternative to the RS-232 interface traditionally used with industrial devices... more/see it nowsuch as programmable logic controllers. Ethernet brings speed, versatility, and cost savings to industrial environments.
The requirements of industrial environments are different than offices, so there are industrial Ethernet standards. The most common is the Ethernet/Industrial Protocol (Ethernet/IP) standard, usually called Industrial Ethernet. Industrial Ethernet adapts ordinary, off-the-shelf IEEE 802.3 Ethernet communication chips and physical media to industrial applications.
The Ingress Protection (IP) ratings developed by the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) specify the environmental protection an enclosure provides.
An IP rating consists of two or three numbers. The first number refers to protection from solid objects or materials; the second number refers to protection from liquids; and the third number, commonly omitted from the rating, refers to protection against mechanical impacts. An IP67 rating means that a connector is totally protected from dust and from the effects of immersion in 5.9 inches (15 cm) to 3.2 feet (1 m) of water for 30 minutes.
Because office-grade RJ-45 connectors do not stand up to an industrial environment, the Ethernet/IP standard calls for sealed industrial RJ-45 connectors that meet an IP67 standard, meaning the connectors are sealed against dust and water. collapse
Black Box Explains...Fiber optic attenuators.
Attenuators are used with single-mode fiber optic devices and cable to filter the strength of the fiber optic signal. Depending on the type of attenuator attached to the devices at... more/see it noweach end of the fiber optic cable, you can diminish the strength of the light signal a variable amount, measured in decibels (dB).
Why would you want to filter the strength of the fiber optic signal? Single-mode fiber is designed to carry a fiber optic signal long distances—as much as 70 kilometers (or 43.4 miles). Fiber devices send this signal with great force to ensure that the signal, and your data, arrive at the other end intact.
But when two fiber devices connected with single-mode fiber cable are close to each other, the signal may be too strong. As a result, the light signal reflects back down the fiber cable. Data can be corrupted and transmissions can be faulty. A signal that is too strong can even damage the attached equipment.
Because its probably not feasible to move your fiber equipment farther apart, the easiest solution is to attach an attenuator to each fiber device. Just as sunglasses filter the strength of sunlight, attenuators filter the strength of the light signal transmitted along single-mode fiber cable. Within the attenuator, theres doping that reduces the strength of the signal passing through the fiber connection and minute air gaps where the two fibers meet. Fiber grooves may also be intentionally misaligned by several microns—but only enough to slow the fiber optic signal to an acceptable rate as it travels down the cable.
Before selecting an attenuator, you need to check the type of adapter on your fiber devices. Attenuators typically fit into any patch panel equipped with FC, SC, or LC adapters that contain either PC or APC contacts. In addition to the type of adapter, you also need to determine the necessary attenuation value, such as 5 or 10 dB. This value varies, depending on the strength of fiber optic signal desired. collapse
Black Box Explains...NEMA ratings for enclosures.
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) issues guidelines and ratings for an enclosure’s level of protection against contaminants that might come in contact with its enclosed equipment.
There are many numerical... more/see it nowNEMA designations; we’ll discuss NEMA enclosures relevant to our on-line catalog: NEMA 3, NEMA 3R, NEMA 4, NEMA 4X, and NEMA 12.
NEMA 3 enclosures, designed for both indoor and outdoor use, provide protection against falling dirt, windblown dust, rain, sleet, and snow, as well as ice formation.
The NEMA 3R rating is identical to NEMA 3 except that it doesn’t specify protection against windblown dust.
NEMA 4 and 4X enclosures, also designed for indoor and outdoor use, protect against windblown dust and rain, splashing and hose-directed water, and ice formation. NEMA 4X goes further than NEMA 4, specifying that the enclosure will also protect against corrosion caused by the elements.
NEMA 12 enclosures are constructed for indoor use only and are designed to provide protection against falling dirt, circulating dust, lint, fibers, and dripping or splashing noncorrosive liquids. Protection against oil and coolant seepage is also a prerequisite for NEMA 12 designation. collapse
Black Box Explains...10-Gigabit Ethernet.
10-Gigabit Ethernet, sometimes called 10-GbE or 10 GigE, is the latest improvement on the Ethernet standard, ratified in 2003 for fiber as the 802.3ae standard, in 2004 for twinax cable... more/see it now
as the 802.3ak standard, and in 2006 for UTP as the 802.3an standard.
10-Gigabit Ethernet offers ten times the speed of Gigabit Ethernet. This extraordinary throughput plus compatibility with existing Ethernet standards has resulted in 10-Gigabit Ethernet quickly becoming the new standard for high-speed network backbones, largely supplanting older technologies such as ATM over SONET. 10-Gigabit Ethernet has even made inroads in the area of storage area networks (SAN) where Fibre Channel has long been the dominant standard. This new Ethernet standard offers a fast, simple, relatively inexpensive way to incorporate super high-speed links into your network.
Because 10-Gigabit Ethernet is simply an extension of the existing Ethernet standards family, it’s a true Ethernet standard—it’s totally backwards compatible and retains full compatibility with 10-/100-/1000-Mbps Ethernet. It has no impact on existing Ethernet nodes, enabling you to seamlessly upgrade your network with straightforward upgrade paths and scalability.
10-Gigabit Ethernet is less costly to install than older high-speed standards such as ATM.
And not only is it relatively inexpensive to install, but the cost of network maintenance and management also stays low—10-Gigabit Ethernet can easily be managed by local network administrators.
10-Gigabit Ethernet is also more efficient than other high-speed standards. Because it uses the same Ethernet frames as earlier Ethernet standards, it can be integrated into your network using switches rather than routers. Packets don’t need to be fragmented, reassembled, or translated for data to get through.
Unlike earlier Ethernet standards, which operate in half- or full-duplex, 10-Gigabit Ethernet operates in full-duplex only, eliminating collisions and abandoning the CSMA/CD protocol used to negotiate half-duplex links. It maintains MAC frame compatibility with earlier Ethernet standards with 64- to 1518-byte frame lengths. The 10-Gigabit standard does not support jumbo frames, although there are proprietary methods for accommodating them.
Fiber 10-Gigabit Ethernet standards
There are two groups of physical-layer (PHY) 10-Gigabit Ethernet standards for fiber:
LAN-PHY and WAN-PHY.
LAN-PHY is the most common group of standards. It’s used for simple switch and router
connections over privately owned fiber and uses a line rate of 10.3125 Gbps with 64B/66B
The other group of 10-Gigabit Ethernet standards, WAN-PHY, is used with SONET/SDH
interfaces for wide area networking across cities, states—even internationally.
10GBASE-SR (Short-Range) is a serial short-range fiber standard that operates over two multimode fibers. It has a range of 26 to 82 meters (85 to 269 ft.) over legacy 62.5-µm 850-nm fiber and up to 300 meters (984 ft.) over 50-µm 850-nm fiber.
10GBASE-LR (Long-Range) is a serial long-range 10-Gbps Ethernet standard that operates at ranges of up to 25 kilometers (15.5 mi.) on two 1310-nm single-mode fibers.
10GBASE-ER (Extended-Range) is similar to 10GBASE-LR but supports distances up to 40 kilometers (24.9 mi.) over two 1550-nm single-mode fibers.
10GBASE-LX4 uses Coarse-Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) to achieve ranges of 300 meters (984 ft.) over two legacy 850-nm multimode fibers or up to 10 kilometers (6.2 mi.) over two 1310-nm single-mode fibers. This standard multiplexes four data streams over four different wavelengths in the range of 1300 nm. Each wavelength carries 3.125 Gbps to achieve 10-Gigabit speed.
In fiber-based Gigabit Ethernet, the 10GBASE-SR, 10GBASE-LR, and 10GBASE-ER LAN-PHY standards have WAN-PHY equivalents called 10GBASE-SW, 10GBASE-LW, and 10GBASE-EW. There is no WAN-PHY standard corresponding to 10GBASE-LX4.
WAN-PHY standards are designed to operate across high-speed systems such as SONET and SDH. These systems are often telco operated and can be used to provide high-speed data delivery worldwide. WAN-PHY 10-Gigabit Ethernet operates within SDH and SONET using an SDH/SONET frame running at 9.953 Gbps without the need to directly map Ethernet frames into SDH/SONET.
WAN-PHY is transparent to data—from the user’s perspective it looks exactly the same as LAN-PHY.
10-Gigabit Ethernet over Copper
10GBASE-CX4 is a standard that enables Ethernet to run over CX4 cable, which consists of four twinaxial copper pairs bundled into a single cable. CX4 cable is also used in high-speed InfiniBand® and Fibre Channel storage applications.
Although CX4 cable is somewhat less expensive to install than fiber optic cable, it’s limited to distances of up to 15 meters. Because this standard uses such a specialized cable at short distances, 10GBASE-CX4 is generally used only in limited data center applications such as connecting servers or switches.
10GBASE-Kx is backplane 10-Gigabit Ethernet and consists of two standards. 10GBASE-KR is a serial standard compatible with 10GBASE-SR, 10GBASE-LR, and 10GBASE-ER. 10GBASE-KX4 is compatible with 10GBASE-LX4. These standards use up to 40 inches of copper printed circuit board with two connectors in place of cable. These very specialized standards are used primarily for switches, routers, and blade servers in data center applications.
10GBASE-T is the 10-Gigabit standard that uses the familiar shielded or unshielded copper UTP cable. It operates at distances of up to 55 meters (180 ft.) over existing Category 6 cabling or up to 100 meters (328 ft.) over augmented Category 6, or “6a,” cable, which is specially designed to reduce crosstalk between UTP cables. Category 6a cable is somewhat bulkier than Category 6 cable but retains the familiar RJ-45 connectors.
To send data at these extremely high speeds across four-pair UTP cable, 10GBASE-T uses sophisticated digital signal processing to suppress crosstalk between pairs and to remove signal reflections.
10-Gigabit Ethernet Applications
> 10-Gigabit Ethernet is already being deployed in applications requiring extremely
> As a lower-cost alternative to Fibre Channel in storage area networking (SAN)
> High-speed server interconnects in server clusters.
> Aggregation of Gigabit segments into 10-Gigabit Ethernet trunk lines.
> High-speed switch-to-switch links in data centers.
> Extremely long-distance Ethernet links over public SONET infrastructure.
Although 10-Gigabit Ethernet is currently being implemented only by extremely high-volume users such as enterprise networks, universities, telecommunications carriers, and Internet service providers, it’s probably only a matter of time before it’s delivering video to your desktop. Remember that only a few years ago, a mere 100-Mbps was impressive enough to be called “Fast Ethernet.”
Black Box Explains...Fiber optic ferrule sleeves.
In a fiber optic adapter, the internal ferrule sleeve holds the fiber in place and aligns the filament of one fiber ferrule with its mate. The ferrule sleeve is the... more/see it nowmost expensive component to manufacture in a fiber optic adapter, accounting for approximately 80% of the total adapter cost.
The ferrule alignment sleeves are also the most critical part of a fiber optic connection process. They provide the bridge between one cables ferrule and another cables ferrule interface. The precision of the ferrule sleeve and its hole determines how well the fibers align, which affects the light signal transmission.
Fiber optic adapters are generally made with ceramic or metal ferrule sleeves. Some adapters also feature ferrule sleeves that are a combination of these materials.
Ceramic ferrule sleeves are more precisely molded and fit close to the fiber ferrule. This precise molding gives the fiber optic connection a lower optical loss. As a general rule, use ceramic ferrule sleeves for critical network connections, such as backbone runs in highly secure networks or for connections that will be changed frequently, like those in wiring closets. Ceramic ferrule sleeves best suit single-mode cable connections.
Ferrule sleeves made of metal, such as bronze ferrules, offer more durability than ceramic sleeves, but they may not offer the same precision alignment as ceramic ferrule sleeves. Drilling an accurate hole through the metal ferrule sleeve can be difficult, and that can result in less accurate fiber alignment. The use of watch-jeweled centering improves alignment. But overall, metal ferrule sleeves are better suited for multimode fiber applications where absolute alignment isnt crucial.
Black Box Explains...The MPO connector.
MPO stands for multifiber push-on connector. It is a connector for multifiber ribbon cable that generally contains 6, 8, 12, or 24 fibers. It is defined by IEC-61754-7 and TIA-604-5-D,... more/see it nowalso known as FOCIS 5. The MPO connector, combined with lightweight ribbon cable, represents a huge technological advance over traditional multifiber cables. It’s lighter, more compact, easier to install, and less expensive.
A single MPO connector replaces up to 12, 24, or 36 standard connectors. This very high density means lower space requirements and reduced costs for your installation. Traditional, tight-buffered multifiber cable needs to have each fiber individually terminated by a skilled technician. But MPO fiber optic cable, which carries multiple fibers, comes preterminated.
Just plug it in and you’re ready to go.
MPO connectors feature an intuitive push-pull latching sleeve mechanism with an audible click upon connection and are easy to use. The MPO connector is similar to the MT-RJ connector. The MPO’s ferrule surface of 2.45 x 6.40 mm is slightly bigger than the MT-RJ’s, and the latching mechanism works with a sliding sleeve latch rather than a push-in latch.
The MPO connector can be either male or female. You can tell the male connector by the two alignment pins protruding from the end of the ferrule. The MPO ferrule is generally flat for multimode applications and angled for single-mode applications.
MPO connectors are also commonly called MTP® connectors, which is a registered trademark of US Conec. The MTP connector is an MPO connector engineered with particular enhancements to improve optical and mechanical performance. The two connectors are compatible.
Black Box Explains... SCSI termination
This is the oldest method of termination. A passive terminator sits on the bus to minimize reflections at the end of the cable. Passive terminators simply provide impedance close... more/see it nowto that of the cable. The terminator is “passive” because it doesnt do any work to regulate power for termination; it relies on the interface card to provide steady power.
This is a more stable form of terminating SCSI cables. Active terminators control the impedance at the end of the SCSI bus by using a voltage regulator, not just the power supplied by the interface card.
Of all SCSI terminators, this is the most complex. A cable with a forced-perfect terminator can actually change its impedance to compensate for variations along the bus. Forced-perfect terminators force the impedance of the cable to match each device through diode switching and biasing. collapse
Black Box Explains...Alien crosstalk.
Alien crosstalk (ANEXT) is a critical and unique measurement in 10-GbE systems. Crosstalk, used in 10/100/1000BASE-T systems, measures the mixing of signals between wire pairs within a cable. Alien Crosstalk,... more/see it nowin 10-GbE systems, is the measurement of the signal coupling between wire pairs in
different, adjacent cables.
The amount of ANEXT depends on a number of factors, including the promixity of adjacent cables and connectors, the cable length, cable twist density, and EMI. Patch panels and connecting hardware are also affected by Alien Crosstalk.
With Alien Crosstalk, the affected cable is called the disturbed or victim cable. The surrounding cables are the disturber cables.