Black Box Explains... SCSI termination
This is the oldest method of termination. A passive terminator sits on the bus to minimize reflections at the end of the cable. Passive terminators simply provide impedance close... more/see it nowto that of the cable. The terminator is “passive” because it doesnt do any work to regulate power for termination; it relies on the interface card to provide steady power.
This is a more stable form of terminating SCSI cables. Active terminators control the impedance at the end of the SCSI bus by using a voltage regulator, not just the power supplied by the interface card.
Of all SCSI terminators, this is the most complex. A cable with a forced-perfect terminator can actually change its impedance to compensate for variations along the bus. Forced-perfect terminators force the impedance of the cable to match each device through diode switching and biasing. collapse
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DisplayPort is a digital video interface that was designed by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) in 2006 and has been produced since 2008. It’s incredibly versatile, with the capability... more/see it nowto deliver digital video, audio, bidirectional communications, and accessory power over a single connector.
DisplayPort cables are targeted at the computer world rather than at consumer electronics. DisplayPort is used to connect digital audio/video computers, displays, monitors, projectors, HDTVs, splitters, extenders, and other devices that support resolutions up to 4K and beyond. Unlike HDMI, however, DisplayPort is an open standard with no royalties.
With the proper adapters, DisplayPort cable can carry DVI and HDMI signals, although this doesn’t work the other way around—DVI and HDMI cable can’t carry DisplayPort. Because DisplayPort can provide power to attached devices, DisplayPort to HDMI or DVI adapters don’t need a separate power supply.
DisplayPort supports cable lengths of up to 15 meters with maximum resolutions at cable lengths up to 3 meters. Bidirectional signaling enables DisplayPort to both send and receive data from an attached device.
DisplayPort v1.1: 10.8 Gbps over a 2-meter cable.
DisplayPort v1.2: 21.6 Gbps (4K). DisplayPort v1.2 also enables you to daisychain up to four monitors with only a single output cable. It also offers the future promise of DisplayPort Hubs that would operate much like a USB hub.
DisplayPort v1.3: 2.4 Gbps. (5K)
The standard DisplayPort connector is very compact and features latches that don’t add to the connector’s size. Unlike HDMI, a DisplayPort connector is easily lockable with a pinch-down locking hood, so it can't be easily dislodged. However, a quick squeeze of the connector releases the latch.
The Mini DisplayPort (MiniDP or mDP) is a miniatured version of the DisplayPort interface. It carries both digital and analog computer video and audio signals. Apple® introduced the Mini DisplayPort connector in 2008 and it is now on all new Mac® computers. It is also being used in newer PC notebooks. This small form factor connector fully supports the VESA DisplayPort protocol. It is particularly useful on systems where space is at a premium, such as laptops, or to support multiple connectors on reduced height add-in cards.
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Black Box Explains...SCSI-1, SCSI-2, SCSI-3, and SCSI-5.
There are standards
and there are standards applied in real-world applications. This Black Box Explains illustrates how SCSI is interpreted by many SCSI manufacturers. Think of these as common SCSI connector... more/see it nowtypes, not as firm SCSI specifications. Notice, for instance, theres a SCSI-5, which isnt listed among the other approved and proposed specifications. However, for advanced SCSI multiport applications, SCSI-5 is often the connector of choice.
Supports transfer rates up to 5 MBps and seven SCSI devices on an 8-bit bus. The most common connector is the Centronics® 50 or a DB50. A Micro Ribbon 50 is also used for internal connections. SCSI-1 equipment, such as controllers, can also have Burndy 60 or 68 connectors.
SCSI-2 introduced optional 16- and 32-bit buses called Wide SCSI. Transfer rate is normally 10 MBps but SCSI-2 can go up to 40 MBps with Wide and Fast SCSI. SCSI-2 usually features a Micro D 50-pin connector with thumbclips. Its also known as Mini 50 or Micro DB50. A Micro Ribbon 60 connector may also be used for internal connections.
Found in many high-end systems, SCSI-3 commonly uses a Micro D 68-pin connector with thumbscrews. Its also known as Mini 68. The most common bus width is 16 bits with transfer rates of 20 MBps.
SCSI-5 is also called a Very High-Density Connector Interface (VHDCI) or 0.8-mm connector. Its similar to the SCSI-3 MD68 connector in that it has 68 pins, but it has a much smaller footprint. SCSI-5 is designed for SCSI-5, next-generation SCSI connections. Manufacturers are integrating this 0.8-mm design into controller cards. Its also the connector of choice for advanced SCSI multiport applications. Up to four channels can be accommodated in one card slot. Connections are easier where space is limited. collapse
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Black Box Explains…HDMI
The High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI®) is the first digital interface to combine uncompressed high-definition video, up to eight channels of uncompressed digital audio, and intelligent format and command data in... more/see it nowa single cable. It is now the de facto standard for consumer electronics and high-definition video and is gaining ground in the PC world.
HDMI supports standard, enhanced, and high-definition video. It can carry video signals at resolutions beyond 1080p at 60 Hz (Full HD) up to 4K x 2K (4096 x 2160) as well as 3D TV.
HDMI also provides superior audio clarity. It supports multiple audio formats from standard stereo to multichannel surround sound.
HDMI offers an easy, standardized way to set up home theaters and AV equipment over one cable. Use it to connect audio/video equipment, such as DVD players, set-top boxes, and A/V receivers with an audio and/or video equipment, such as a digital TVs, PCs, cameras, and camcorders. It also supports multiple audio formats from standard stereo to multichannel surround sound. Plus it provides two-way communications between the video source and the digital TV, enabling simple remote, point-and-click configurations.
NOTE: HDMI also supports HDCP (High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection), which prevents the copying of digital audio and video content transmitted over HDMI able. If you have a device between the source and the display that supports HDMI but not HDCP, your transmission won't work, even over an HDMI cable.
HDMI offers significant benefits over older analog A/V connections. It's backward compatible with DVI equipment, such as PCs. TVs, and other electronic devices using the DVI standard. A DVI-to-HDMI adapter can be used without a loss of video quality. Because DVI only supports video signals, no audio, the DVI device simply ignores the extra audio data.
The HDMI standard was introduced in December 2002. Since then, there have been a number of versions with increasing bandwidth and/or transmission capabilities.
With the introduction of HDMI (June 2006), more than doubled the bandwidth from 4.95 Gbps to 10.2 Gbps (340 MHz). It offers support for 16-bit color, increased refresh rates, and added support for 1440p WQXGA. It also added support for xvYCC color space and Dolby True HD and DTS-HD Master Audio standards. Plus it added features to automatically correct audio video synchronization. Finally, it added a mini connector.
HDMI 1.3a (November 2006), HDMI 1.3b (March 2007, HDMI 1.3b1 (November 2007), and 1.3c (August 2008) added termination recommendations, control commands, and other specification for testing, etc.
HDMI 1.4 (May 2009) increased the maximum resolution to 4Kx 2K (3840 x 2160 p/24/25/30 Hz). It added an HDMI Ethernet channel for a 100-Mbps connection between two HDMI devices. Other advancements include: an Audio Return Channel, stereoscopic 3D over HDMI (HDMI 1.3 devices will only support this for 1080i), an automotive connection system, and the micro HDMI connector.
HDMI 1.4a (March 2010) adds two additional 3D formats for broadcast content.
HDMI 2.0 (August 2013), which is backwards compatible with earlier versions of the HDMI specification, significantly increases bandwidth up to 18 Gbps and adds key enhancements to support market requirements for enhancing the consumer video and audio experience.
HDMI 2.0 also includes the following advanced features:
Resolutions up to 4K@50/60 (2160p), which is four times the clarity of 1080p/60 video resolution, for the ultimate video experience.
Up to 32 audio channels for a multi-dimensional immersive audio experience.
Up to 1536Hz audio sample frequency for the highest audio fidelity.
Simultaneous delivery of dual video streams to multiple users on the same screen.
Simultaneous delivery of multi-stream audio to multiple users (up to four).
Support for the wide angle theatrical 21:9 video aspect ratio.
Dynamic synchronization of video and audio streams.
CEC extensions provide more expanded command and control of consumer electronics devices through a single control point.
Standard HDMI Cable: 1080i and 720p
Standard HDMI Cable with Ethernet
Automotive HDMI Cable
High Speed HDMI Cable: 1080p, 4K, 3D and Deep Color
High Speed HDMI Cable with Ethernet
There are four HDMI connector types.
Type A: 19 pins. It supports all SDTV, EDTV, and HDTV modes. It is electrically compatible with single-link DVI-D. HDMI 1.0 specification.
Type B: 29 pins. Offers double the video bandwidth of Type A. Use for very high-resolution displays such as WQUXGA. It's electronically compatible with dual-link DVI-D. HDMI 1.0 specification.
Type C Mini: 19 pins. This mini connector is intended for portable devices. It is smaller than Type A but has the same pin configuration and can be connected to Type A cable via an adapter or adapter cable. Type C is defined in HDMI 1.3.
Type D Micro: 19 pins. This also has the 19-pin configuration of Type A but is about the size of a micro-USB connector. Type D is defined in HDMI 1.4.
Recently, HDMI Licensing, LLC announced that all able would be tested as either Standard or High-Speed cables. Referring to cables based on HDMI standard (e.g. 1.2, 1.3 etc.) is no longer allowed.
Standard HDMI cable is designed for use with digital broadcast TV, cable TV, satellites TV, Blu-ray, and upscale DVD payers to reliably transmit up to 1080i or 720p video (or the equivalent of 75 MHz or up to 2.25 Gbps).
High-Speed HDMI reliably transmits video resolutions of 1080p and beyond, including advanced display technologies such as 4K, 3D, and Deep Color. High-Speed HDMI is the recommended cable for 1080p video. It will perform at speeds of 600 MHz or up to 18 Gbps, the highest bandwidth urgently available over an HDMI cable.
HDCP copy protection
HDMI also supports High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP), which prevents the copying of content transmitted over HDMI cable. If you have a device between the source and the display that supports HDMI but not HDCP, your transmission won’t work, even over an HDMI cable.
Additional resources and licensing information is available at HDMI.org.
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