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Black Box Explains...Media converters.



Media converters interconnect different cable types such as twisted pair, fiber, and coax within an existing network. They are often used to connect newer Ethernet equipment to legacy cabling.... more/see it nowThey can also be used in pairs to insert a fiber segment into copper networks to increase cabling distances and enhance immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI).


Traditional media converters are purely Layer 1 devices that only convert electrical signals and physical media. They don’t do anything to the data coming through the link so they’re totally transparent to data. These converters have two ports—one port for each media type. Layer 1 media converters only operate at one speed and cannot, for instance, support both 10-Mbps and 100-Mbps Ethernet.


Some media converters are more advanced Layer 2 Ethernet devices that, like traditional media converters, provide Layer 1 electrical and physical conversion. But, unlike traditional media converters, they also provide Layer 2 services—in other words, they’re really switches. This kind of media converter often has more than two ports, enabling you to, for instance, extend two or more copper links across a single fiber link. They also often feature autosensing ports on the copper side, making them useful for linking segments operating at different speeds.


Media converters are available in standalone models that convert between two different media types and in chassis-based models that connect many different media types in a single housing.




Rent an apartment

Standalone converters convert between two media. But, like a small apartment, they can be outgrown. Consider your current and future applications before selecting a media converter. Standalone converters are available in many configurations, including 10BASE-T to multimode or single-mode fiber, 10BASE-T to Thin coax (ThinNet), 10BASE-T to thick coax (standard Ethernet), CDDI to FDDI, and Thin coax to fiber. 100BASE-T and 100BASE-FX models that connect UTP to single- or multimode fiber are also available. With the development of Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbps), media converters have been created to make the transition to high-speed networks easier.




...or buy a house.

Chassis-based or modular media converters are normally rackmountable and have slots that house media converter modules. Like a well-planned house, the chassis gives you room to grow. These are used when many Ethernet segments of different media types need to be connected in a central location. Modules are available for the same conversions performed by the standalone converters, and 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, 100BASE-FX, and Gigabit modules may also be mixed.

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Black Box Explains... Spread Spectrum wireless technology.

Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum wireless communication provides error-free transmission, top security, and high levels of throughput without the need for an FCC site license. The key to Spread Spectrum is a... more/see it nowfrequency-hopping transceiver.

Narrow-band frequency hoppers use a predefined algorithm to maintain synchronization and high throughput between master and remote modems. They achieve this by continually switching or “hopping” from one transmission frequency to another throughout the Spread Spectrum band. The sequence of frequencies is very difficult to predict and thus nearly impossible to eavesdrop on or jam. If interference is encountered at any particular frequency, the built-in error correction detects it and resends the data packet at the next frequency hop. Because EMI/RFI interference rarely affects the entire available bandwidth, and each frequency hop is at least 6 MHz, the radio transmitter has access to as many as 100 frequencies within the spectrum to avoid interference and ensure that data gets through. collapse


Black Box Explains...UARTs at a glance.

Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitters (UARTs) are integrated circuits that convert bytes from the computer bus into serial bits for transmission. By providing surplus memory in a buffer, UARTs help applications overcome... more/see it nowthe factors that can hinder system performance, providing maximum throughput to high-performance peripherals without slowing down CPUs.

Early UARTs such as 8250 and 16450 did not include buffering (RAM or memory). With the advent of higher-speed devices, the need for UARTs that could handle more data became critical. The first buffered UART was the 16550, which incorporates a 16-byte First In First Out (FIFO) buffer and provides greater throughput than its predecessors.

Manufacturers have been developing enhanced UARTs that continue to increase performance standards. These faster chips provide improvements such as larger buffers and increased speeds. Here are the rates of today’s common UARTs:

UART FIFO Buffer Rate Supported
16550 16-byte 115.2 kbps
16554 16-byte 115.2 kbps
16650 32-byte 460.8 kbps (burst rate)
16654 64-byte 460.8 kbps (burst rate)
16750 64-byte 460.8 kbps (burst rate)
16850 128-byte 460.8 kbps (sustained rate)
16854 128-byte 460.8 kbps (sustained rate) collapse


Black Box Explains…Fiber Ethernet adapters vs. media converters.

When running fiber to the desktop, you have two choices for making the connection from the fiber to a PC: a fiber Ethernet adapter or a media converter like our... more/see it nowMicro Mini Media Converter.

Fiber Ethernet adapters:

  • Less expensive.
  • Create no desktop clutter, but the PC must be opened.
  • Powered from the PC—require no separate power provision.
  • Require an open PCI or PCI-E slot in the PC.
  • Can create driver issues that must be resolved.
  • May be required in high-security installations that require a 100% fiber link to the desktop.

  • Media converters:
  • More expensive.
  • No need to open the PC but can create a cluttered look.
  • Powered from an AC outlet or a PC’s USB port.
  • Don’t require an open slot in the PC.
  • Plug-and-play installation—totally transparent to data, so there are no driver problems; install in seconds.
  • The short copper link from media converter to PC may be a security vulnerability.
  • collapse


    Black Box Explains...Benefits of T1 and E1.

    If you manage a heavy-traffic data network and you demand high bandwidth for high speeds, Black Box has what you need to send your data digitally over super-fast T1 or... more/see it nowE1 communication lines.

    Both T1 and E1 are foundations of global voice communication.
    Developed more than 30 years ago and commercially available since 1983, T1 and E1 go virtually anywhere phone lines go, but faster.

    T1 sends data up to 1.544 Mbps. E1 supports speeds to 2.048 Mbps. No matter where you need to connect—North, South, or Central America, Europe, or the Pacific Rim—T1 and E1 can get your data there—fast!

    Both services provide flexibility for a multitude of applications.
    Whether you need to drive a private, point-to-point line or a high-speed circuit; provide corporate access to the Internet or inbound access to your own webserver; or support a voice/data/fax/video WAN that extends halfway around the world, T1 or E1 can make the connection.

    Both offer cost-effective connections.
    In recent years, competition among telco service providers has led to increasingly more affordable prices for T1 and E1 services. In fact, most companies seriously considering a shift to T1 or E1 find they can negotiate even better rates with just a little comparative cost analysis.

    Typical applications:
    • Trunking of V.90 and ISDN remote connection to a central location.
    • Accessing public Frame Relay networks for voice, fax, and data.
    • Merging voice and data traffic. A single T1 or E1 line can give you several additional voice and data lines at no additional cost.
    • Making LAN connections. If you’re linking LANs, a T1 or E1 line offers excellent performance.
    • Sending bandwidth-intensive data such as CAD/CAM, MRI, CAT-scan images, and other graphics with large files. collapse


    Black Box Explains...Connecting peripherals with USB.

    Before Universal Serial Bus (USB), adding peripherals required skill. You had to open your computer to install a card, set DIP switches, and make IRQ settings. Now you can connect... more/see it nowdigital joysticks, scanners, speakers, cameras, or PC telephones to your computer instantly. With USB, anyone can make the connection because everything is automatic!

    Because USB connections are hot-swappable, you can attach or remove peripherals without shutting down your computer. Also, USB hubs have additional ports that enable you to daisychain multiple devices together. More than 800 leading PC, peripheral, and software manufacturers support USB. collapse


    Black Box Explains...T1 and E1 benefits.

    If you manage a heavy-traffic data network and you demand high bandwidth for high speeds, Black Box has what you need to send your data digitally over super-fast T1 or... more/see it nowE1 communication lines.

    Both T1 and E1 are foundations of global voice communication.
    Developed more than 30 years ago and commercially available since 1983, T1 and E1 go virtually anywhere phone lines go, but faster. T1 sends data up to 1.544 Mbps. E1 supports speeds to 2.048 Mbps. No matter where you need to connect—North, South, or Central America, Europe, or the Pacific Rim—T1 and E1 can get your data there—fast!

    Both services provide flexibility for a multitude of applications. Whether you need to drive a private, point-to-point line or a high- speed circuit, provide corporate access to the Internet or inbound access to your own webserver, or support a voice/data/fax/video WAN that extends halfway around the world, T1 or E1 can make the connection.

    Both offer cost-effective connections.
    In recent years, competition among telco service providers has led to increasingly more affordable prices for T1 and E1 services. In fact, most companies seriously considering a shift to T1 or E1 will find they can negotiate even better rates with just a little comparative cost analysis.

    Some typical applications include:
    • Accessing public Frame-Relay networks or public switched telephone networks for voice and fax.
    • Merging voice and data traffic. A single T1 or E1 line can give you several additional voice and data lines at no additional cost.
    • Making LAN connections. If you’re linking LANs, a T1 or E1 line offers excellent performance.
    • Sending bandwidth-intensive data such as CAD/CAM, MRI, CAT-scan images, and other graphics with large files. collapse


    Black Box Explains... Single-Mode Fiber Optic Cable

    Multimode fiber cable has multiple modes of propagation—that is, several wavelengths of light are normally used in the fiber core. In contrast, single-mode fiber cable has only one mode of... more/see it nowpropagation: a single wavelength of light in the fiber core. This means there’s no interference or overlap between the different wavelengths of light to garble your data over long distances like there is with multimode cable.

    What does this get you? Distance–up to 50 times more distance than multimode fiber cable. You can also get higher bandwidth. You can use a pair of single-mode fiber strands full-duplex for up to twice the throughput of multimode fiber cable. The actual speed and distance you get will vary with the devices used with the single-mode fiber. collapse


    Black Box Explains...Power problems.

    Sags
    The Threat — A sag is a decline in the voltage level. Also known as “brownouts,” sags are the most common power problem.

    The Cause — Sags can be caused... more/see it nowlocally by the start-up demands of electrical devices such as motors, compressors, and elevators. Sags may also happen during periods of high electrical use, such as during a heat wave.

    The Effect — Sags are often the cause of “unexplained” computer glitches such as system crashes, frozen keyboards, and data loss. Sags can also reduce the efficiency and lifespan of electrical motors.

    Blackouts
    The Threat — A blackout is a total loss of power.

    The Cause — Blackouts are caused by excessive demand on the power grid, an act of nature such as lightning or an earthquake, or a human accident such as a car hitting a power pole or a backhoe digging in the wrong place.

    The Effect — Of course a blackout brings everything to a complete stop. You also lose any unsaved data stored in RAM and may even lose the total contents of your hard drive.

    Spikes
    The Threat — A spike, also called an impulse, is an instantaneous, dramatic increase in voltage.

    The Cause — A spike is usually caused by a nearby lightning strike but may also occur when power is restored after a blackout.

    The Effect — A spike can damage or completely destroy electrical components and also cause data loss.

    Surges
    The Threat — A surge is an increase in voltage lasting at least 1/120 of a second.

    The Cause — When high-powered equipment such as an air conditioner is powered off, the excess voltage is dissipated though the power line causing a surge.

    The Effect — Surges stress delicate electronic components causing them to wear out before their time.

    Noise
    The Threat — Electrical noise, more technically called electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI), interrupts the smooth sine wave expected from electrical power.

    The Cause — Noise has many causes including nearby lightning, load switching, industrial equipment, and radio transmitters. It may be intermittent or chronic.

    The Effect — Noise introduces errors into programs and data files. collapse


    Black Box Explains... Printer Sharing with Windows

    Unlike the earlier DOS operating systems, Windows® doesn’t check to see if the printer is busy at the very beginning of the printing process. Windows will send out data to... more/see it nowstart a job even if the printer is signaling busy or unavailable. If your print sharer doesn’t have a buffer, critical printer-initialization information can be lost before your job is started. Once the initialization information is lost, the printer cannot interpret the job correctly.

    A buffered print-sharing device is the most practical solution. When Windows starts printing to a buffered port, it “thinks“ it’s talking directly to the printer, and the critical initialization information is stored by the buffer. The buffer can send out a busy signal to Windows, so it delays sending more information until the buffer is accessible again. collapse

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