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Black Box Explains...T1 and E1.

If you manage a heavy-traffic data network and demand high bandwidth for high speeds, you need digital super-fast T1 or E1.

Both T1 and E1 are foundations of global communications. Developed... more/see it nowmore than 35 years ago and commercially available since 1983, T1 and E1 go virtually anywhere phone lines go, but they’re much faster. T1, used primarily in the U.S., sends data up to 1.544 Mbps; E1, used primarily in Europe, supports speeds to 2.048 Mbps. No matter where you need to connect—North, South, or Central America, Europe, or the Pacific Rim—T1 and E1 can get your data there fast!

T1 and E1 are versatile, too. Drive a private, point-to-point line; provide corporate access to the Internet; enable inbound access to your Web Server—even support a voice/data/fax/video WAN that extends halfway around the world! T1 and E1 are typically used for:
• Accessing public Frame Relay networks or Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTNs) for voice or fax.
• Merging voice and data traffic. A single T1 or E1 line can support voice and data simultaneously.
• Making super-fast LAN connections. Today’s faster Ethernet speeds require the very high throughput provided by one or more T1 or E1 lines.
• Sending bandwidth-intensive data such as CAD/CAM, MRI, CAT-scan images, and other large files.

Scaling T1
Basic T1 service supplies a bandwidth of 1.536 Mbps. However, many of today’s applications demand much more bandwidth. Or perhaps you only need a portion of the 1.536 Mbps that T1 supplies. One of T1’s best features is that it can be scaled up or down to provide just the right amount of bandwidth for any application.

A T1 channel consists of 24 64-kbps DS0 (Digital Signal [Zero]) subchannels that combine to provide 1.536 Mbps throughput. Because they enable you to combine T1 lines or to use only part of a T1, DS0s make T1 a very flexible standard.

If you don’t need 1.536 Mbps, your T1 service provider can rent you a portion of a T1 line, called Fractional T1. For instance, you can contract for half a T1 line—768 kbps—and get the use of DS0s 1–12. The service provider is then free to sell DS0s 13–24 to another customer.

If you require more than 1.536 Mbps, two or more T1 lines can be combined to provide very-high-speed throughput. The next step up from T1 is T1C; it offers two T1 lines multiplexed together for a total throughput of 3.152 on 48 DS0s. Or consider T2 and get 6.312 Mbps over 96 DS0s by multiplexing four T1 lines together to form one high-speed connection.

Moving up the scale of high-speed T1 services is T3. T3 is 28 T1 lines multiplexed together for a blazing throughput of 44.736 Mbps, consisting of 672 DS0s, each of which supports 64 kbps.

Finally there’s T4. It consists of 4032 64-kbps DS0 subchannels for a whopping 274.176 Mbps of bandwidth—that’s 168 times the size of a single T1 line!

These various levels of T1 service can by implemented simulta-neously within a large enterprise network. Of course, this has the potential to become somewhat overwhelming from a management standpoint. But as long as you keep track of DS0s, you always know exactly how much bandwidth you have at your disposal.

T1’s cousin, E1, can also have multiple lines merged to provide greater throughput. collapse

Black Box Explains...How fiber is insulated for use in harsh environments.

Fiber optic cable not only gives you immunity to interference and greater signal security, but it’s also constructed to insulate the fiber’s core from the stress associated with use in... more/see it nowharsh environments.

The core is a very delicate channel that’s used to transport data signals from an optical transmitter to an optical receiver. To help reinforce the core, absorb shock, and provide extra protection against cable bends, fiber cable contains a coating of acrylate plastic.

In an environment free from the stress of external forces such as temperature, bends, and splices, fiber optic cable can transmit light pulses with minimal attenuation. And although there will always be some attenuation from external forces and other conditions, there are two methods of cable construction to help isolate the core: loose-tube and tight-buffer construction.

In a loose-tube construction, the fiber core literally floats within a plastic gel-filled sleeve. Surrounded by this protective layer, the core is insulated from temperature extremes, as well as from damaging external forces such as cutting and crushing.

In a tight-core construction, the plastic extrusion method is used to apply a protective coating directly over the fiber coating. This helps the cable withstand even greater crushing forces. But while the tight-buffer design offers greater protection from core breakage, it’s more susceptible to stress from temperature variations. Conversely, while it’s more flexible than loose-tube cable, the tight-buffer design offers less protection from sharp bends or twists. collapse

Black Box Explains...Power problems.

The Threat — A sag is a decline in the voltage level. Also known as “brownouts,” sags are the most common power problem.

The Cause — Sags can be caused... more/see it nowlocally by the start-up demands of electrical devices such as motors, compressors, and elevators. Sags may also happen during periods of high electrical use, such as during a heat wave.

The Effect — Sags are often the cause of “unexplained” computer glitches such as system crashes, frozen keyboards, and data loss. Sags can also reduce the efficiency and lifespan of electrical motors.

The Threat — A blackout is a total loss of power.

The Cause — Blackouts are caused by excessive demand on the power grid, an act of nature such as lightning or an earthquake, or a human accident such as a car hitting a power pole or a backhoe digging in the wrong place.

The Effect — Of course a blackout brings everything to a complete stop. You also lose any unsaved data stored in RAM and may even lose the total contents of your hard drive.

The Threat — A spike, also called an impulse, is an instantaneous, dramatic increase in voltage.

The Cause — A spike is usually caused by a nearby lightning strike but may also occur when power is restored after a blackout.

The Effect — A spike can damage or completely destroy electrical components and also cause data loss.

The Threat — A surge is an increase in voltage lasting at least 1/120 of a second.

The Cause — When high-powered equipment such as an air conditioner is powered off, the excess voltage is dissipated though the power line causing a surge.

The Effect — Surges stress delicate electronic components causing them to wear out before their time.

The Threat — Electrical noise, more technically called electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI), interrupts the smooth sine wave expected from electrical power.

The Cause — Noise has many causes including nearby lightning, load switching, industrial equipment, and radio transmitters. It may be intermittent or chronic.

The Effect — Noise introduces errors into programs and data files. collapse

Black Box Explains...Advantages of fiber optic line drivers.

Fiber optic line drivers are much better for communications than copper-wire alternatives because they offer three main advantages: superior conductivity, freedom from interference, and security.

Superior conductivity for increased performance
The glass... more/see it nowcore of a fiber optic cable is an excellent signal conductor. With proper splices and terminations, fiber cable yields very low signal loss and can easily support data rates of 100 Mbps or more.

Immunity to electrical interference
Because fiber optic line drivers use a nonmetallic conductor, they don’t pick up or emit electromagnetic or radio-frequency interference (EMI/RFI). Crosstalk (interference from an adjacent communication channel) is also eliminated, which increases transmission quality.

Signals transmitted via fiber optic line drivers aren’t susceptible to any form of external frequency-related interference. That makes fiber connections completely immune to damaging power surges, signal distortions from nearby lightning strikes, and high-voltage interference. Because fiber cable doesn’t conduct electricity, it can’t create electrical problems in your equipment.

Signal security
Electronic eavesdropping requires the ability to intercept and monitor the electromagnetic frequencies of signals traveling over a copper data wire. Fiber optic line drivers use a light-based transmission medium, so they’re completely immune to electronic bugging. collapse

USB 3.0

The newest USB standard, USB 3.0 or “SuperSpeed USB," provides vast improvements over USB 2.0. USB 3.0 promises speeds up to 5 Gbps, about ten times that of USB 2.0.... more/see it now

USB 3.0 uses a sync-n-go technology that minimizes user wait time. USB 3.0 adds a physical bus running in parallel with the existing 2.0 bus. It has the flat USB Type A plug, but inside there is an extra set of connectors, and the edge of the plug is blue instead of white. The Type B plug looks different with an extra set of connectors.

USB 3.0 cable contains nine wires, four more than USB 2.0, which has one pair for data and one pair for power. USB 3.0 adds two more data pairs, for a total of eight plus a ground. These extra pairs enable USB 3.0 to support bidirectional asynchronous, full-duplex data transfer instead of USB 2.0’s half-duplex polling method.

USB 3.0 is much more power efficient than USB 2.0. It provides 50% more power than USB 2.0 (150 mA vs 100 mA) to unconfigured devices and up to 80% more power (900 mA vs 500 mA) to configured devices. It is also better at conserving power, when compared to USB 2.0, which uses power when the cable or device isn’t being used. With USB 3.0, when devices are idle, it doesn't broadcast packets or perform polling.

USB 3.0 is completely backwards compatible with USB 2.0. Applications built to the USB 2.0 spec will work seamlessly with USB 3.0. collapse

Black Box Explains... PCI buses

A Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Bus enhances both speed and throughput. A PCI Local Bus is a high-performance bus that provides a processor-independent data path between the CPU and high-speed... more/see it nowperipherals. PCI is a robust interconnect interface designed specifically to accommodate multiple high-performance peripherals for graphics, full-motion video, SCSI, and LANs. collapse

Black Box Explains...Electronic vs. manual switches.

What’s the difference between electronic and manual switches? Are the benefits of electronic switches worth the price increase over manual switches?

As you might imagine, the inner workings of manual switches... more/see it noware far simpler than those of electronic switches. When you turn the dial of a manual switch, internal connections are physically moved. This is great for less complex applications, but it can cause voltage spikes that can damage particularly sensitive equipment such as laser printers.

Because electronic switches do their switching with solid-state components, you have more control in advanced applications. For example, our AC-powered, code-operated, and fallback switches offer numerous options for out-of-band management of critical network resources. They give you the remote control your operation may need. You can control your high-end applications and sensitive equipment via computer, modem, or even touch-tone phone—a convenience simply not available with manual switches. collapse

Black Box Explains...16850 UART.

The 16850 Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) features a 128-byte First In First Out (FIFO) buffer. When implemented with the appropriate onboard drivers and receivers, it enables your onboard serial ports... more/see it nowto achieve sustained data rates of up to 460.8 kbps.

The 16850 UART includes automatic handshaking (RTS/CTS) and automatic RS-485 line control. It also features external clocking for isochronous applications, a performance enhancement not offered by earlier UARTs. collapse

Black Box Explains...USB 2.0 and USB OTG.

The Universal Serial Bus (USB) hardware (plug-and-play) standard makes connecting peripherals to your computer easy.

USB 1.1, introduced in 1995, is the original USB standard. It has two data rates:... more/see it now12 Mbps for devices such as disk drives that need high-speed throughput and 1.5 Mbps for devices such as joysticks that need much lower bandwidth.

In 2002, a newer specification, USB 2.0, or Hi-Speed USB 2.0, gained wide acceptance in the industry. This version is both forward- and backward-compatible with USB 1.1. It increases the speed of the peripheral to PC connection from 12 Mbps to 480 Mbps, or 40 times faster than USB 1.1!

This increase in bandwidth enhances the use of external peripherals that require high throughput, such as CD/DVD burners, scanners, digital cameras, video equipment, and more. USB 2.0 supports demanding applications, such as Web publishing, in which multiple high-speed devices run simultaneously. USB 2.0 also supports Windows® XP through a Windows update.

An even newer USB standard, USB On-The-Go (OTG), is also in development. USB OTG enables devices other than a PC to act as a host. It enables portable equipment—such as PDAs, cell phones, digital cameras, and digital music players—to connect to each other without the need for a PC host.

USB 2.0 specifies three types of connectors: the A connector, the B connector, and the Mini B connector. A fourth type of connector, the Mini A (used for smaller peripherals such as mobile phones), was developed as part of the USB OTG specification. collapse

Black Box Explains...Code-operated and matrix switches.

Code-operated and matrix switches from Black Box give you computer-controlled switching for a variety of applications.

Code-operated switches
BLACK BOX® Code-Operated Switches enable one device to control up to 64 connected devices,... more/see it nowdepending on the code-operated switch. For instance, you can use one modem—not eight—to control eight devices. Code-operated switches are ideal for applications that require remote switching for file sharing or monitoring. Use code-operated switches for:
• Remote programming. Call in via remote sites to access servers, logic controllers, or any devices that require programming.
• Diagnostics. From your master control room, you can probe servers and run diagnostics.

Matrix switches
Matrix switches enable more than one device to control other devices. Any port can connect to any port and perform more than one operation at a time independently. The code-operated switches talk to only one slave port at a time.

For instance, if your operation has four computers that need to share two printers and one modem, a matrix switch is what you need to handle the job. Use matrix switches for:
• Industrial applications. You can download instructions remotely to more than one programmable logic controller.
• Data sharing. PCs or industrial devices can be connected—locally or remotely—to other PCs and industrial devices or for file swapping. collapse

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