Black Box Explains...Connecting peripherals with USB.
Before Universal Serial Bus (USB), adding peripherals required skill. You had to open your computer to install a card, set DIP switches, and make IRQ settings. Now you can connect... more/see it nowdigital joysticks, scanners, speakers, cameras, or PC telephones to your computer instantly. With USB, anyone can make the connection because everything is automatic!
Because USB connections are hot-swappable, you can attach or remove peripherals without shutting down your computer. Also, USB hubs have additional ports that enable you to daisychain multiple devices together. More than 800 leading PC, peripheral, and software manufacturers support USB. collapse
Black Box Explains…Before the ServSwitch.
Before the introduction of the ServSwitch, accessing more than one CPU from a single keyboard, monitor, and mouse was problematic. Keyboard/video (KV) or keyboard/video/mouse (KVM) switches frequently caused CPUs to... more/see it nowlock up because the CPUs werent always receiving the signals they expected from the keyboard. Managing server farms was a nuisance because either each server needed its own keyboard, monitor, and mouse, it or was subject to frequent rebooting if used with a KVM switch.
The BLACK BOX® ServSwitch™ KVM Switch changed all that. The ServSwitch enables frequent switching between multiple CPUs (up to 3000!) without the danger of CPUs locking up. That’s because the ServSwitch is built with sophisticated circuitry that keeps feeding each CPU the keyboard and mouse signals it expects.
So why are we still selling preServSwitch keyboard/video switches? The Number 1 reason is many of our customers have preinstalled applications in which these switches are specified, so we keep stocking them as a service. Another reason is there is still some call for these switches for applications in which only limited switching is required.
However, for most KVM applications, we recommend a BLACK BOX® ServSwitch™ KVM Switch as the most reliable switching solution. We have ServSwitch products and accessories for everything from a simple desktop application to managing all the servers in your enterprise network.
Simplify and save with BLACK BOX® ServSwitch™ Technology! collapse
Black Box Explains...Advanced printer switches.
Matrix—A matrix switch is a switch with a keypad for selecting one of many input ports to connect to any one of many output ports.
Port-Contention—A port-contention switch is an... more/see it nowautomatic electronic switch that can be serial or parallel. It has multiple input ports but only one output port. The switch monitors all ports simultaneously. When a port receives data, it prints and all the other ports have to wait.
Scanning—A scanning switch is like a port-contention switch, but it scans ports one at a time to find one thats sending data.
Code-Operated—Code-operated switches receive a code (data string) from a PC or terminal to select a port.
Matrix Code-Operated—This matrix version of the code-operated switch can be an any-port to any-port switch. This means than any port on the switch can attach to any other port or any two or more ports can make a simultaneous link and transfer data. collapse
Black Box Explains...USB.
The Universal Serial Bus (USB) hardware (plug-and-play) standard makes connecting peripherals to your computer easy. USB 1.1, introduced in 1995, is the original USB standard. It has two data rates:... more/see it now12 Mbps and 1.5 Mbps.
USB 2.0, or Hi-Speed USB 2.0, was released in 2000. It increased the peripheral-to-PC speed from 12 Mbps to 480 Mbps, or 40 times faster than USB 1.1. This increase in bandwidth enabled the use of peripherals requiring higher throughput, such as CD/DVD burners, scanners, digital cameras, and video equipment. It is backward-compatible with USB 1.1.
The newest USB standard, USB 3.0 (or SuperSpeed USB), (2008) provides vast improvements over USB 2.0. It promises speeds up to
4.8 Gbps, nearly ten times that of USB 2.0.
USB 3.0 has the flat USB Type A plug, but inside there is an extra set of connectors and the edge of the plug is blue instead of white. The Type B plug looks different with an extra set of connectors.
USB 3.0 adds a physical bus running in parallel with the existing 2.0 bus. USB 3.0 cable contains nine wires, four wire pairs plus a ground. It has two more data pairs than USB 2.0, which has one pair for data and one pair for power. The extra pairs enable USB 3.0 to support bidirectional async, full-duplex data transfer instead of USB 2.0’s half-duplex polling method.
USB 3.0 provides 50% more power than USB 2.0 (150 mA vs 100 mA) to unconfigured devices and up to 80% more power (900 mA vs 500 mA) to configured devices. Also, USB 3.0 conserves more power when compared to USB 2.0, which uses power when the cable isn’t being used. collapse
Black Box Explains... Printer Sharing with Windows
Unlike the earlier DOS operating systems, Windows® doesnt check to see if the printer is busy at the very beginning of the printing process. Windows will send out data to... more/see it nowstart a job even if the printer is signaling busy or unavailable. If your print sharer doesnt have a buffer, critical printer-initialization information can be lost before your job is started. Once the initialization information is lost, the printer cannot interpret the job correctly.
A buffered print-sharing device is the most practical solution. When Windows starts printing to a buffered port, it thinks its talking directly to the printer, and the critical initialization information is stored by the buffer. The buffer can send out a busy signal to Windows, so it delays sending more information until the buffer is accessible again. collapse
Black Box Explains... Manual switch chassis styles.
There are five manual switch chassis styles: three for standalone switches (Styles A, B, and C) and two for rackmount switches (Styles D and E). Below are the specifications for... more/see it noweach style.
Chassis Style A
Size — 2.5"H x 6"W x 6.3"D (6.4 x 15.2 x 16 cm
Weight — 1.5 lb. (0.7 kg)
Chassis Style B
Size — 3.5"H x 6"W x 6.3"D (8.9 x 15.2 x 16 cm)
Weight — 1.5 lb. (0.7 kg)
Chassis Style C
Size — 3.5"H x 17"W x 5.9"D (8.9 x 43.2 x 15 cm)
Weight — 8.4 lb. (3.8 kg)
Chassis Style D (Mini Chassis)
Size — 3.5"H x 19"W x 5.9"D (8.9 x 48.3 x 15 cm)
Chassis Style E (Standard Chassis)
Size — 7"H x 19"W x 5.9"D (17.8 x 48.3 x 15 cm) collapse
Black Box Explains...10-Gigabit Ethernet.
10-Gigabit Ethernet (10-GbE), ratified in June 2002, is a logical extension of previous Ethernet versions. 10-GbE was designed to make the transition from LANs to Wide Area Networks (WANs) and... more/see it nowMetropolitan Area Networks (MANs). It offers a cost-effective migration for high-performance and long-haul transmissions at up to 40 kilometers. Its most common application now is as a backbone for high-speed LANs, server farms, and campuses.
10-GbE supports existing Ethernet technologies. It uses the same layers (MAC, PHY, and PMD), and the same frame sizes and formats. But the IEEE 802.3ae spec defines two sets of physical interfaces: LAN (LAN PHY) and WAN (WAN PHY). The most notable difference between 10-GbE and previous Ethernets is that 10-GbE operates in full-duplex only and specifies fiber optic media.
At a glanceGigabit vs. 10-Gigabit Ethernet
• CSMA/CD + full-duplex
• Leveraged Fibre Channel PMDs
• Reused 8B/10B coding
• Optical/copper media
• Support LAN to 5 km
• Carrier extension
• Full-duplex only
• New optical PMDs
• New coding scheme 64B/66B
• Optical (developing copper)
• Support LAN to 40 km
• Throttle MAC speed for WAN
• Use SONET/SDH as Layer 1 transport
The alphabetical coding for 10-GbE is as follows:
S = 850 nm
L = 1310 nm
E = 1550 nm
X = 8B/10B signal encoding
R = 66B encoding
W = WIS interface (for use with SONET).
10GBASE-SR — Distance: 300 m; Wavelength: 850 nm; Cable: Multimode
10GBASE-SW — Distance: 300 m; Wavelength: 850 nm; Cable: Multimode
10GBASE-LR — Distance: 10 km; Wavelength: 1310 nm; Cable: Single-Mode
10GBASE-LW — Distance: 10 km; Wavelength: 1310 nm; Cable: Single-Mode
10GBASE-LX4 — Distance: Multimode 300 m, Single-Mode 10 km; Wavelength: Multimode 1310 nm, Single-Mode WWDM; Cable: Multimode or Single-Mode
10GBASE-ER — Distance: 40 km; Wavelength: 1550 nm; Cable: Single-Mode
10GBASE-EW — Distance: 40 km; Wavelength: 550 nm; Cable: Single-Mode
10GBASE-CX4* — Distance: 15 m; Wavelength: Cable: 4 x Twinax
10GBASE-T* — Distance: 25–100 m; Wavelength: Cable: Twisted Pair
* Proposed for copper. collapse
Black Box Explains... Single-Mode Fiber Optic Cable
Multimode fiber cable has multiple modes of propagation—that is, several wavelengths of light are normally used in the fiber core. In contrast, single-mode fiber cable has only one mode of... more/see it nowpropagation: a single wavelength of light in the fiber core. This means theres no interference or overlap between the different wavelengths of light to garble your data over long distances like there is with multimode cable.
What does this get you? Distanceup to 50 times more distance than multimode fiber cable. You can also get higher bandwidth. You can use a pair of single-mode fiber strands full-duplex for up to twice the throughput of multimode fiber cable. The actual speed and distance you get will vary with the devices used with the single-mode fiber. collapse
Black Box Explains...Electronic vs. manual switches.
Whats the difference between electronic and manual switches? Are the benefits of electronic switches worth the price increase over manual switches?
As you might imagine, the inner workings of manual switches... more/see it noware far simpler than those of electronic switches. When you turn the dial of a manual switch, internal connections are physically moved. This is great for less complex applications, but it can cause voltage spikes that can damage particularly sensitive equipment such as laser printers.
Because electronic switches do their switching with solid-state components, you have more control in advanced applications. For example, our AC-powered, code-operated, and fallback switches offer numerous options for out-of-band management of critical network resources. They give you the remote control your operation may need. You can control your high-end applications and sensitive equipment via computer, modem, or even touch-tone phone—a convenience simply not available with manual switches. collapse
Black Box Explains...Code-operated and matrix switches.
Code-operated and matrix switches from Black Box give you computer-controlled switching for a variety of applications.
BLACK BOX® Code-Operated Switches enable one device to control up to 64 connected devices,... more/see it nowdepending on the code-operated switch. For instance, you can use one modem—not eight—to control eight devices. Code-operated switches are ideal for applications that require remote switching for file sharing or monitoring. Use code-operated switches for:
• Remote programming. Call in via remote sites to access servers, logic controllers, or any devices that require programming.
• Diagnostics. From your master control room, you can probe servers and run diagnostics.
Matrix switches enable more than one device to control other devices. Any port can connect to any port and perform more than one operation at a time independently. The code-operated switches talk to only one slave port at a time.
For instance, if your operation has four computers that need to share two printers and one modem, a matrix switch is what you need to handle the job. Use matrix switches for:
• Industrial applications. You can download instructions remotely to more than one programmable logic controller.
• Data sharing. PCs or industrial devices can be connected—locally or remotely—to other PCs and industrial devices or for file swapping. collapse