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  • Manual... 
  • Industrial Opto-Isolated RS-232 Repeater Manual
    Manual for the ICD201A

Black Box Explains...T1 and E1.

If you manage a heavy-traffic data network and demand high bandwidth for high speeds, you need digital super-fast T1 or E1.

Both T1 and E1 are foundations of global communications. Developed... more/see it nowmore than 35 years ago and commercially available since 1983, T1 and E1 go virtually anywhere phone lines go, but they’re much faster. T1, used primarily in the U.S., sends data up to 1.544 Mbps; E1, used primarily in Europe, supports speeds to 2.048 Mbps. No matter where you need to connect—North, South, or Central America, Europe, or the Pacific Rim—T1 and E1 can get your data there fast!

T1 and E1 are versatile, too. Drive a private, point-to-point line; provide corporate access to the Internet; enable inbound access to your Web Server—even support a voice/data/fax/video WAN that extends halfway around the world! T1 and E1 are typically used for:
• Accessing public Frame Relay networks or Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTNs) for voice or fax.
• Merging voice and data traffic. A single T1 or E1 line can support voice and data simultaneously.
• Making super-fast LAN connections. Today’s faster Ethernet speeds require the very high throughput provided by one or more T1 or E1 lines.
• Sending bandwidth-intensive data such as CAD/CAM, MRI, CAT-scan images, and other large files.

Scaling T1
Basic T1 service supplies a bandwidth of 1.536 Mbps. However, many of today’s applications demand much more bandwidth. Or perhaps you only need a portion of the 1.536 Mbps that T1 supplies. One of T1’s best features is that it can be scaled up or down to provide just the right amount of bandwidth for any application.

A T1 channel consists of 24 64-kbps DS0 (Digital Signal [Zero]) subchannels that combine to provide 1.536 Mbps throughput. Because they enable you to combine T1 lines or to use only part of a T1, DS0s make T1 a very flexible standard.

If you don’t need 1.536 Mbps, your T1 service provider can rent you a portion of a T1 line, called Fractional T1. For instance, you can contract for half a T1 line—768 kbps—and get the use of DS0s 1–12. The service provider is then free to sell DS0s 13–24 to another customer.

If you require more than 1.536 Mbps, two or more T1 lines can be combined to provide very-high-speed throughput. The next step up from T1 is T1C; it offers two T1 lines multiplexed together for a total throughput of 3.152 on 48 DS0s. Or consider T2 and get 6.312 Mbps over 96 DS0s by multiplexing four T1 lines together to form one high-speed connection.

Moving up the scale of high-speed T1 services is T3. T3 is 28 T1 lines multiplexed together for a blazing throughput of 44.736 Mbps, consisting of 672 DS0s, each of which supports 64 kbps.

Finally there’s T4. It consists of 4032 64-kbps DS0 subchannels for a whopping 274.176 Mbps of bandwidth—that’s 168 times the size of a single T1 line!

These various levels of T1 service can by implemented simulta-neously within a large enterprise network. Of course, this has the potential to become somewhat overwhelming from a management standpoint. But as long as you keep track of DS0s, you always know exactly how much bandwidth you have at your disposal.

T1’s cousin, E1, can also have multiple lines merged to provide greater throughput. collapse

  • Manual... 
  • FlexPoint RS-232 to Fiber Converter, Multimode, 2.5 km, SC
    Installation and User Guide

Black Box Explains...Media converters.

Media converters interconnect different cable types such as twisted pair, fiber, and coax within an existing network. They are often used to connect newer Ethernet equipment to legacy cabling.... more/see it nowThey can also be used in pairs to insert a fiber segment into copper networks to increase cabling distances and enhance immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI).

Traditional media converters are purely Layer 1 devices that only convert electrical signals and physical media. They don’t do anything to the data coming through the link so they’re totally transparent to data. These converters have two ports—one port for each media type. Layer 1 media converters only operate at one speed and cannot, for instance, support both 10-Mbps and 100-Mbps Ethernet.

Some media converters are more advanced Layer 2 Ethernet devices that, like traditional media converters, provide Layer 1 electrical and physical conversion. But, unlike traditional media converters, they also provide Layer 2 services—in other words, they’re really switches. This kind of media converter often has more than two ports, enabling you to, for instance, extend two or more copper links across a single fiber link. They also often feature autosensing ports on the copper side, making them useful for linking segments operating at different speeds.

Media converters are available in standalone models that convert between two different media types and in chassis-based models that connect many different media types in a single housing.

Rent an apartment

Standalone converters convert between two media. But, like a small apartment, they can be outgrown. Consider your current and future applications before selecting a media converter. Standalone converters are available in many configurations, including 10BASE-T to multimode or single-mode fiber, 10BASE-T to Thin coax (ThinNet), 10BASE-T to thick coax (standard Ethernet), CDDI to FDDI, and Thin coax to fiber. 100BASE-T and 100BASE-FX models that connect UTP to single- or multimode fiber are also available. With the development of Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbps), media converters have been created to make the transition to high-speed networks easier.

...or buy a house.

Chassis-based or modular media converters are normally rackmountable and have slots that house media converter modules. Like a well-planned house, the chassis gives you room to grow. These are used when many Ethernet segments of different media types need to be connected in a central location. Modules are available for the same conversions performed by the standalone converters, and 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, 100BASE-FX, and Gigabit modules may also be mixed.


Product Data Sheets (pdf)...Fiber Optic Multipoint (FOM) Line Drivers

  • Specification Sheet... 
  • USB 2.0 Ultimate Extender (CAT5, 1-Port) Specification Sheet
    Specification Sheet for the IC401A (Version 1)

Product Data Sheets (pdf)...USB 3.0 Active Extension Cable

Black Box Explains...Advantages of fiber optic line drivers.

Fiber optic line drivers are much better for communications than copper-wire alternatives because they offer three main advantages: superior conductivity, freedom from interference, and security.

Superior conductivity for increased performance
The glass... more/see it nowcore of a fiber optic cable is an excellent signal conductor. With proper splices and terminations, fiber cable yields very low signal loss and can easily support data rates of 100 Mbps or more.

Immunity to electrical interference
Because fiber optic line drivers use a nonmetallic conductor, they don’t pick up or emit electromagnetic or radio-frequency interference (EMI/RFI). Crosstalk (interference from an adjacent communication channel) is also eliminated, which increases transmission quality.

Signals transmitted via fiber optic line drivers aren’t susceptible to any form of external frequency-related interference. That makes fiber connections completely immune to damaging power surges, signal distortions from nearby lightning strikes, and high-voltage interference. Because fiber cable doesn’t conduct electricity, it can’t create electrical problems in your equipment.

Signal security
Electronic eavesdropping requires the ability to intercept and monitor the electromagnetic frequencies of signals traveling over a copper data wire. Fiber optic line drivers use a light-based transmission medium, so they’re completely immune to electronic bugging. collapse

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