Black Box Explains…Remote monitoring.
Beyond virus protection.
It has become almost automatic to protect your data center by backing up your servers, installing firewalls and virus protection, and keeping the protection up-to-date.
But what about... more/see it nowmore tangible threats? Do you have hot spots in your racks? If the cooling system shuts down, how will you know when temperatures climb out of control? Are you
alerted to humidity changes or water leaks
that threaten your equipment?
Planning for the unexpected is a critical task because there are more systems performing mission-critical functions than ever before. These systems are often deployed without the proper environmental infrastructure to support them. Equipment density is increasing constantly, which is creating more stress on ventilation and power.
The top three IT risks:
1. Environmental disruption.
The number one cause of downtime for remote locations, environmental problems go beyond fires and floods and affect as much as 30% of a company’s mission-critical infrastructure. Cooling and power are key points of exposure and increase as equipment density does.
2. Unnecessary risk.
When systems are housed in less-than-optimal settings, or are in remote and unsupervised locations, any error causes downtime. Yet, it’s not practical to have someone babysitting the servers.
Regardless of the probability, terrorism is
now something each of us must plan for. Your systems can also be brought down from within if the proper security safeguards are not in place.
What’s an environmental
Environmental monitoring products enable you to actively monitor the conditions in your rack, server room, data center, or anywhere else you need to protect critical assets. Conditions
monitored include extreme temperatures, humidity, power spikes and surges, water leaks, smoke,
and chemical materials. With proper environmental monitoring, you’re alerted to any conditions that could have an adverse effect on your mission-critical equipment. These products can also
alert you to potential damage from human error, hacking, or prying fingers.
Environmental monitors consist of three main elements: a base unit, probes or sensors, and
network connectivity and integration. The base units may contain one or more built-in sensors,
as well as ports for hooking up external probes. Additionally, they include an Ethernet port and have software for remote configuration and graphing. This software may also work with
existing network management software,
such as SNMP systems.
An environmental monitoring appliance
displays the values measured by the attached probes, e.g. temperature, humidity, airflow,
status of dry contact, door, motion detector,
and other sensors.
Data collecting and graphing.
Measurements are periodically stored in the internal memory or external storage media and displayed as graphs.
When the measured value exceeds the
predefined threshold, it triggers an alert: a blinking LED on the front panel, an audible alarm, SNMP trap, e-mail, etc. The environmental monitoring appliance can also activate an external alarm
system like a siren or strobe light.
Benefits of environmental monitoring:
Reduced downtime—When things go wrong, you’re the first to know. Minimize downtime by being alerted about conditions that cause damage to servers and other network devices.
Increased profits—Environmental monitoring systems are easy to implement. Also, they help you cut replacement equipment costs and redistribute your workforce more effectively.
Increased employee satisfaction—With built-in notification features like e-mail, SMS, and SNMP traps, a remote monitoring system enables employees to better manage their work.
Envornmental and security monitoring systems can be used for a variety of applications, including:
Data center monitoring
Computer room monitoring
Rackmount industrial equipment
Food and beverage applications
Air conditioner/refrigerants/freezer monitoring
Black Box Explains...Thermocouples
A thermocouple is a device that measures temperature by using the fact that a junction between two different metals produces a varying voltage related to their temperature. Two common types... more/see it nowof thermocouple are Type J and Type K.
Type J thermocouples use iron paired with a nickel-copper alloy. Type J thermocouples may cover a temperature range of up to -40 to +1382° F (-40 to +750°C), and offer high sensitivity.
Type K, the most common type of thermocouple, uses nickel-chromium and nickel-aluminum alloys. Because Type K is an early specification, its characteristics vary widely; individual thermocouples may cover a range of up to -328 to +2462 °F (-200 to +1350 °C).
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Black Box Explains...Power over Ethernet (PoE).
What is PoE?
The seemingly universal network connection, twisted-pair Ethernet cable, has another role to play, providing electrical power to low-wattage electrical devices. Power over Ethernet (PoE) was ratified by the... more/see it nowInstitute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) in June 2000 as the 802.3af-2003 standard. It defines the specifications for low-level power delivery—roughly 13 watts at 48 VDC—over twisted-pair Ethernet cable to PoE-enabled devices such as IP telephones, wireless access points, Web cameras, and audio speakers.
Recently, the basic 802.3af standard was joined by the IEEE 802.3at PoE standard (also called PoE+ or PoE plus), ratified on September 11, 2009, which supplies up to 25 watts to larger, more power-hungry devices. 802.3at is backwards compatible with 802.3af.
How does PoE work?
The way it works is simple. Ethernet cable that meets CAT5 (or better) standards consists of four twisted pairs of cable, and PoE sends power over these pairs to PoE-enabled devices. In one method, two wire pairs are used to transmit data, and the remaining two pairs are used for power. In the other method, power and data are sent over the same pair.
When the same pair is used for both power and data, the power and data transmissions don’t interfere with each other. Because electricity and data function at opposite ends of the frequency spectrum, they can travel over the same cable. Electricity has a low frequency of 60 Hz or less, and data transmissions have frequencies that can range from 10 million to 100 million Hz.
There are two types of devices involved in PoE configurations: Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE) and Powered Devices (PD).
PSEs, which include end-span and mid-span devices, provide power to PDs over the Ethernet cable. An end-span device is often a PoE-enabled network switch that’s designed to supply power directly to the cable from each port. The setup would look something like this:
End-span device → Ethernet with power
A mid-span device is inserted between a non-PoE device and the network, and it supplies power from that juncture. Here is a rough schematic of that setup:
Non-PoE switch → Ethernet without PoE → Mid-span device → Ethernet with power
Power injectors, a third type of PSE, supply power to a specific point on the network while the other network segments remain without power.
PDs are pieces of equipment like surveillance cameras, sensors, wireless access points, and any other devices that operate on PoE.
PoE applications and benefits.
Use one set of twisted-pair wires for both data and low-wattage appliances.
In addition to the applications noted above, PoE also works well for video surveillance, building management, retail video kiosks, smart signs, vending machines, and retail point-of-information systems.
Save money by eliminating the need to run electrical wiring.
Easily move an appliance with minimal disruption.
If your LAN is protected from power failure by a UPS, the PoE devices connected to your LAN are also protected from power failure.
Converters and Scalers Selector
IEEE 802.3 af
|PoE IEEE 802.3 at
|Power available at powered device
|Maximum power delivered
|Voltage range at powred source
|Voltage range at powred device
|Maximum cable resistance
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